The alteration of rocks is usually due to the chemical-physical processes that are initially established on the outer surface of the stone and gradually proceed towards the inner matrix. The chemical alteration generated by the interaction with atmospheric agents (weathering) involves the transformation of the mineral phases constituting the rock that are less stable in the current climatic conditions. That often leads to the formation of new secondary phases more stable with respect to the alteration. However, among these phases are often present some very soluble and hygroscopic phases (i.e., soluble salts, clay minerals) that cause inner degradation of the rock, due to their physical-mechanical actions (inner crystallization pressure, hydration dilation). In the case of carbonate rocks (limestone, sandstone with carbonate cement, etc.), the dissolution is the more frequent process, especially when the monuments were located within the cities, due to the acid meteoric precipitations (with H2CO3, H2SO4) that lead to the sulfation of carbonate matrix with formation of gypsum, very harmful to the stone. When the rock (e.g., clay-arenaceous limestones) naturally contains hygroscopic phases inside the matrix (i.e., marine salts, phyllosilicates) and they are also porous (> 20%), the physical degradation is accelerated, with decohesion of the mineralogical matrix (between the crystalline granules) and consequent disintegration of the stone. In the rock-atmosphere interaction often occurs the presence of biodeteriogens (plants, fungi, lichens, microorganisms, etc.), which negatively participate and in various ways in the processes of rock alteration. The research aims to define the chemical-physical alteration factors on the limestones exposed to different bioclimatic and biogeographic contexts (Mediterranean and Atlantic), taking two study-case monuments located in the Italian and in the Portuguese coasts. In the study presented in this paper the preliminary results of the case-study of Cagliari fortifications have been discussed. In the study the different vascular plants present on stone surface and crevices and their different role in the degradation of limestone rocks have been also studied.

Chemical-physical agents and biodeteriogens in the alteration of limestones used in coastal historical fortifications

Columbu Stefano;Sitzia F.;Bacchetta G.;Podda L.;Calvia G.;Coroneo V.;Pirinu A.;
2018-01-01

Abstract

The alteration of rocks is usually due to the chemical-physical processes that are initially established on the outer surface of the stone and gradually proceed towards the inner matrix. The chemical alteration generated by the interaction with atmospheric agents (weathering) involves the transformation of the mineral phases constituting the rock that are less stable in the current climatic conditions. That often leads to the formation of new secondary phases more stable with respect to the alteration. However, among these phases are often present some very soluble and hygroscopic phases (i.e., soluble salts, clay minerals) that cause inner degradation of the rock, due to their physical-mechanical actions (inner crystallization pressure, hydration dilation). In the case of carbonate rocks (limestone, sandstone with carbonate cement, etc.), the dissolution is the more frequent process, especially when the monuments were located within the cities, due to the acid meteoric precipitations (with H2CO3, H2SO4) that lead to the sulfation of carbonate matrix with formation of gypsum, very harmful to the stone. When the rock (e.g., clay-arenaceous limestones) naturally contains hygroscopic phases inside the matrix (i.e., marine salts, phyllosilicates) and they are also porous (> 20%), the physical degradation is accelerated, with decohesion of the mineralogical matrix (between the crystalline granules) and consequent disintegration of the stone. In the rock-atmosphere interaction often occurs the presence of biodeteriogens (plants, fungi, lichens, microorganisms, etc.), which negatively participate and in various ways in the processes of rock alteration. The research aims to define the chemical-physical alteration factors on the limestones exposed to different bioclimatic and biogeographic contexts (Mediterranean and Atlantic), taking two study-case monuments located in the Italian and in the Portuguese coasts. In the study presented in this paper the preliminary results of the case-study of Cagliari fortifications have been discussed. In the study the different vascular plants present on stone surface and crevices and their different role in the degradation of limestone rocks have been also studied.
978-88-85745-12-4
Petrography; Chemistry; Botany; Microbiology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/254178
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