Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs more frequently in men than in women and a higher risk for PD development in males compared with females has been hypothesized, suggesting gender may be a significant factor in the development and progression of parkinsonism. To date, gender differences in non-motor symptoms are under-reported. Objective: To assess gender differences in motor and non-motor symptoms among Sardinian PD patients. Methods: One hundred fifty-six (91 male and 65 female) consecutive Sardinian PD outpatients were included in this analysis. Modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and UPDRS were used to assess motor symptoms, while non-motor disturbances were evaluated with the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Presence of depression, anxiety and other iatrogenic behavioral disorders was also investigated. In order to determine how gender differences could be specific to PD, 132 age-matched normal controls were assessed with the NMSS. Results: Women were more likely than men to present with tremor as initial symptom (p<.025) and worse UPDRS instability score (p<.02). NMSS score in females was significantly higher than that in males (p<.018). A significantly higher severity in cardiovascular (p<0.002), sleep/fatigue (p<.018) and mood/apathy (p<.001) domains was observed in female PD patients, while the sexual dysfunction domain was reported with a significantly higher score in male patients (p<.017). Fatigue (p<.03), lack of motivation (p<.015) and sadness (p<.009) were observed significantly more frequent in females, while altered interest in sex was noted as more common in males (p<.001). Frequency of depression (p<.011) and anxiety (p<.001) was significantly higher in females, while male patients had increased frequency of compulsive sexual behaviors (p<.05). There was a significantly higher frequency of non-motor symptoms in eight domains in both male and female PD patients compared with controls (p<.001, for all comparisons, with the exception of urinary disturbances in females: p<.004). Only sexual dysfunctions were not significantly higher in male and female PD patients compared with controls. Discussion: The present study highlights the role of gender differences associated with the occurrence of motor and non-motor disorders and our findings indicate that spectrum and severity of non-motor symptoms may present with different gender distribution in PD patients, suggesting a possible sex-related effect (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Gender differences in motor and non-motor symptoms among Sardinian patients with Parkinson's disease

SOLLA, PAOLO;MARROSU, MARIA GIOVANNA;MARROSU, FRANCESCO
2012

Abstract

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) occurs more frequently in men than in women and a higher risk for PD development in males compared with females has been hypothesized, suggesting gender may be a significant factor in the development and progression of parkinsonism. To date, gender differences in non-motor symptoms are under-reported. Objective: To assess gender differences in motor and non-motor symptoms among Sardinian PD patients. Methods: One hundred fifty-six (91 male and 65 female) consecutive Sardinian PD outpatients were included in this analysis. Modified Hoehn and Yahr scale and UPDRS were used to assess motor symptoms, while non-motor disturbances were evaluated with the non-motor symptoms scale (NMSS). Presence of depression, anxiety and other iatrogenic behavioral disorders was also investigated. In order to determine how gender differences could be specific to PD, 132 age-matched normal controls were assessed with the NMSS. Results: Women were more likely than men to present with tremor as initial symptom (p<.025) and worse UPDRS instability score (p<.02). NMSS score in females was significantly higher than that in males (p<.018). A significantly higher severity in cardiovascular (p<0.002), sleep/fatigue (p<.018) and mood/apathy (p<.001) domains was observed in female PD patients, while the sexual dysfunction domain was reported with a significantly higher score in male patients (p<.017). Fatigue (p<.03), lack of motivation (p<.015) and sadness (p<.009) were observed significantly more frequent in females, while altered interest in sex was noted as more common in males (p<.001). Frequency of depression (p<.011) and anxiety (p<.001) was significantly higher in females, while male patients had increased frequency of compulsive sexual behaviors (p<.05). There was a significantly higher frequency of non-motor symptoms in eight domains in both male and female PD patients compared with controls (p<.001, for all comparisons, with the exception of urinary disturbances in females: p<.004). Only sexual dysfunctions were not significantly higher in male and female PD patients compared with controls. Discussion: The present study highlights the role of gender differences associated with the occurrence of motor and non-motor disorders and our findings indicate that spectrum and severity of non-motor symptoms may present with different gender distribution in PD patients, suggesting a possible sex-related effect (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/103665
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