Metal halide perovskites have come to the attention of the scientific community for the progress achieved in solar light conversion. Energy sustainability is one of the priorities of our society, and materials advancements resulting in low-cost but efficient solar cells and large-area lighting devices represent a major goal for applied research. From a basic point of view, perovskites are an exotic class of hybrid materials combining some merits of organic and inorganic semiconductors: large optical absorption, large mobilities, and tunable band gap together with the possibility to be processed in solution. When a novel class of promising semiconductors comes into the limelight, lively discussions ensue on the photophysics of band-edge excitations, because just the states close to the band edge are entailed in energy/charge transport and light emission. This was the case several decades ago for III-V semiconductors, it has been up to 10 years ago for organics, and it is currently the case for perovskites. Our aim in this Account is to rationalize the body of experimental evidence on perovskite photophysics in a coherent theoretical framework, borrowing from the knowledge acquired over the years in materials optoelectronics. A crucial question is whether photon absorption leads to a population of unbound, conductive free charges or instead excitons, neutral and insulating bound states created by Coulomb interaction just below the energy of the band gap. We first focus on the experimental estimates of the exciton binding energy (Eb): at room temperature, Eb is comparable to the thermal energy kBT in MAPbI3 and increases up to values 2-3kBT in wide band gap MAPbBr3 and MAPbClcovering the entire solar spectrum, perovskites3. Statistical considerations predict that these values, even though comparable to or larger than thermal energy, let free carriers prevail over bound excitons for all levels of excitation densities relevant for devices. The analysis of photophysics evidence confirms that all hybrid halide perovskites behave as free-charge semiconductors. Thanks to such property, in combination with band gap energies covering the entire solar spectrum, perovskites represent a promising materials platform for highly efficient, single and multijunction solar cells. Concerning the use of perovskites as color-tunable materials in light emitting devices, free-charges are not the preferred species, as they recombine radiatively through a bimolecular process that is inefficient at the charge-injection levels typical of LED operation. Strategies to overcome this limit, and thus extend the use of perovskite materials beyond solar energy conversion, could be borrowed from inorganic semiconductor optoelectronics and include the fabrication of nanostructures with reduced dimensionality to alter the electronic density of states, as well as engineering composite materials.
|Titolo:||Excited state properties of hybrid perovskites|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2016|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|
File in questo prodotto:
|Saba et al._Accounts of Chemical Research_2015(2).pdf||Articolo principale||Post-print||Administrator Richiedi una copia|