Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and outcomes in women, and antihypertensive therapy is not always successful in achieving control over the blood pressure (BP). Nonoptimal control of BP remains a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, and in women, it could be related to sex-specific factors. Historically, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials; therefore, the benefits of clinical outcomes and the safety profiles of antihypertensive therapies have been studied less extensively in women. The reasons for the sex differences in BP levels are multifactorial, implying different roles of the sex hormones, the renin- angiotensin system, sympathetic activity, and arterial stiffness. A complete understanding of the pathophysiological features of these differences requires further investigation. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the use of antihypertensive agents is higher among middle-aged women than among men. Notably, in the United States, hypertensive women use more diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers than men, whereas hypertensive men more often receive beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists, or inhibitors of angiotensinconverting enzyme. To date, the explanations for these sex differences in the consumption of antihypertensive drugs remain unknown.

Arterial hypertension in the female world: Pathophysiology and therapy

CADEDDU DESSALVI, CHRISTIAN;CUGUSI, LUCIA;MERCURO, GIUSEPPE
2016

Abstract

Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and outcomes in women, and antihypertensive therapy is not always successful in achieving control over the blood pressure (BP). Nonoptimal control of BP remains a crucial risk factor for cardiovascular mortality, and in women, it could be related to sex-specific factors. Historically, women have been underrepresented in clinical trials; therefore, the benefits of clinical outcomes and the safety profiles of antihypertensive therapies have been studied less extensively in women. The reasons for the sex differences in BP levels are multifactorial, implying different roles of the sex hormones, the renin- angiotensin system, sympathetic activity, and arterial stiffness. A complete understanding of the pathophysiological features of these differences requires further investigation. Nevertheless, the prevalence of the use of antihypertensive agents is higher among middle-aged women than among men. Notably, in the United States, hypertensive women use more diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers than men, whereas hypertensive men more often receive beta-blockers, calcium channel antagonists, or inhibitors of angiotensinconverting enzyme. To date, the explanations for these sex differences in the consumption of antihypertensive drugs remain unknown.
Arterial hypertension; Cardiovascular therapy; Gender medicine; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/184940
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