Background: Drugs used in obstetric patients must accomplish two goals: efficacy and safety for both mother and fetus. Neostigmine has been co-administered epidurally and intrathecally with local anesthetics and other adjuncts in the obstetric setting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and incidence of adverse events related to the use of neostigmine in obstetric anesthesia. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled human trials was conducted using the data sources Google Scholar and PubMed (updated 1 November 2014). Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to treatment; comparison of neostigmine or neostigmine with local anesthetics and/or other adjuvants versus placebo or placebo with local anesthetics and/or other adjuvants; and approval by an ethics committee. Results: The use of neostigmine as an adjuvant in neuraxial anesthesia is associated with a reduction in the dose of local anesthetic during labor analgesia and postoperative analgesia following cesarean section: mean reduction of local anesthetic (ropivacaine or bupivacaine) vs. control -4.08 (95% CI -6.7 to -1.5) mg/h (P=0.002). The risk of nausea was increased vs. control with intrathecal neostigmine (OR 8.99 [95% CI 4.74 to 17.05], P <0.001) but not with epidural neostigmine (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.46 to 2.05], P=0.94). Use of neuraxial neostigmine was associated with a decrease in the risk of pruritus but there was no increase in the incidence of hypotension, dizziness or sedation and no effect on the incidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Neuraxial administration of neostigmine significantly reduces local anesthetic consumption without serious adverse side effects to the mother or fetus. However, neostigmine is only recommended for epidural administration as intrathecal use significantly increases the incidence of maternal nausea and vomiting.

A systematic review of the effects of adding neostigmine to local anesthetics for neuraxial administration in obstetric anesthesia and analgesia

PIRAS, DESIDERIO;MURA, PAOLO GIUSEPPE;FINCO, GABRIELE;
2015

Abstract

Background: Drugs used in obstetric patients must accomplish two goals: efficacy and safety for both mother and fetus. Neostigmine has been co-administered epidurally and intrathecally with local anesthetics and other adjuncts in the obstetric setting. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy and incidence of adverse events related to the use of neostigmine in obstetric anesthesia. Methods: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled human trials was conducted using the data sources Google Scholar and PubMed (updated 1 November 2014). Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to treatment; comparison of neostigmine or neostigmine with local anesthetics and/or other adjuvants versus placebo or placebo with local anesthetics and/or other adjuvants; and approval by an ethics committee. Results: The use of neostigmine as an adjuvant in neuraxial anesthesia is associated with a reduction in the dose of local anesthetic during labor analgesia and postoperative analgesia following cesarean section: mean reduction of local anesthetic (ropivacaine or bupivacaine) vs. control -4.08 (95% CI -6.7 to -1.5) mg/h (P=0.002). The risk of nausea was increased vs. control with intrathecal neostigmine (OR 8.99 [95% CI 4.74 to 17.05], P <0.001) but not with epidural neostigmine (OR 0.97 [95% CI 0.46 to 2.05], P=0.94). Use of neuraxial neostigmine was associated with a decrease in the risk of pruritus but there was no increase in the incidence of hypotension, dizziness or sedation and no effect on the incidence of abnormal fetal heart rate patterns or Apgar scores. Conclusions: Neuraxial administration of neostigmine significantly reduces local anesthetic consumption without serious adverse side effects to the mother or fetus. However, neostigmine is only recommended for epidural administration as intrathecal use significantly increases the incidence of maternal nausea and vomiting.
Cesarean section; Labor analgesia; Neostigmine; Neuraxial anesthesia; Analgesia, Obstetrical; Anesthesia, Obstetrical; Anesthetics, Local; Female; Humans; Injections, Spinal; Neostigmine; Pregnancy; Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine; Obstetrics and Gynecology; Medicine (all)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/185293
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