The detection of embolic sources in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is important to guide anticoagulant therapy. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard to study left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy and morphology, despite some false-positive diagnosis. We hypothesized that real time 3D TEE (RT3DTEE) is superior to 2DTEE in detecting and/or excluding LAA thrombi. We studied 93 patients with non-valvular AF (60 males, age = 67.1 ± 14.2 years) referred for electric cardioversion with transthoracic, 2DTEE and RT3DTEE. Before cardioversion, TTE allowed a confident measurement of emptying velocity of LAA (LAAeV) only in 59/93 patients (63%). On the contrary a good quality TEE LAAeV was obtained in all patients with 49/93 (53%) dysfunctional LAA (LAAeV < 40 cm/s). A subgroup of 5 patients (7.2% of the 69 effective cardioversion) presented a persistent dysfunction after cardioversion (with LAAeV values of <40 cm/s on the TEE post-CV). TEE allowed to observe a bilobed shape in 45 patients (48.4%) and three lobes in 22 patients (23.7%). In addition, besides to several additional findings, 2DTEE managed to detect thrombi with certainty in 8/93 patients (8.6%). In other 5 cases with diagnostic doubts for thrombi with 2DTEE (5/93 patients: 5.4%), the addition of the RT3DTEE mode allowed to discriminate with certainty the presence of just pectinate muscles in 4 patients RT3DTEE in patients with AF at risk of embolism is feasible, accurate and showed an additional diagnostic capability in the differential diagnosis of selected cases with suspected LAA thrombi.

Evaluation of left atrial appendage function and thrombi in patients with atrial fibrillation: from transthoracic to real time 3D transesophageal echocardiography

CADEDDU DESSALVI, CHRISTIAN;
2017

Abstract

The detection of embolic sources in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is important to guide anticoagulant therapy. Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is the gold standard to study left atrial appendage (LAA) anatomy and morphology, despite some false-positive diagnosis. We hypothesized that real time 3D TEE (RT3DTEE) is superior to 2DTEE in detecting and/or excluding LAA thrombi. We studied 93 patients with non-valvular AF (60 males, age = 67.1 ± 14.2 years) referred for electric cardioversion with transthoracic, 2DTEE and RT3DTEE. Before cardioversion, TTE allowed a confident measurement of emptying velocity of LAA (LAAeV) only in 59/93 patients (63%). On the contrary a good quality TEE LAAeV was obtained in all patients with 49/93 (53%) dysfunctional LAA (LAAeV < 40 cm/s). A subgroup of 5 patients (7.2% of the 69 effective cardioversion) presented a persistent dysfunction after cardioversion (with LAAeV values of <40 cm/s on the TEE post-CV). TEE allowed to observe a bilobed shape in 45 patients (48.4%) and three lobes in 22 patients (23.7%). In addition, besides to several additional findings, 2DTEE managed to detect thrombi with certainty in 8/93 patients (8.6%). In other 5 cases with diagnostic doubts for thrombi with 2DTEE (5/93 patients: 5.4%), the addition of the RT3DTEE mode allowed to discriminate with certainty the presence of just pectinate muscles in 4 patients RT3DTEE in patients with AF at risk of embolism is feasible, accurate and showed an additional diagnostic capability in the differential diagnosis of selected cases with suspected LAA thrombi.
3D Echocardiography; Atrial appendage; Atrial fibrillation; Cardioversion; Transesophageal echocardiography; Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging; Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/193450
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