Purpose: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent complication of pregnancy; around 10% of GDM cases may be determined by autoimmunity, and our aims were to establish the role of autoimmunity in a population of Sardinian women affected by GDM, to find predictive factors for autoimmune GDM, and to determine type 1 diabetes (T1D) auto-antibodies (Aabs) together with glucose tolerance after a mean 21.2 months of follow-up. Methods: We consecutively recruited 143 women affected by GDM and 60 without GDM; clinical data and pregnancy outcomes were obtained by outpatient visit or phone recall. T1D auto-antibodies GADA, IA2-A, IAA, ZnT8-A were measured in the whole population at baseline, and in the Aab-positive women at follow-up. Results: The overall prevalence of autoimmunity was 6.4% (13/203). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of auto-antibodies between GDM (5.6%) and control (8.3%) women, neither in antibody titres. Highest titres for GADA and ZnT8-A were observed in the control group; no phenotypic factors were predictive for autoimmune GDM. Diabetes-related autoantibodies were still present in all the GDM women at follow-up, and their presence was associated with a 2.65 (p < 0.0016) relative risk (RR) of glucose impairment. Conclusion: We observed a low prevalence (5.6%) of diabetes-related autoimmunity in our GDM cohort, consistent with the prevalence reported in previous studies. It was not possible to uncover features predictive of autoimmune GDM. However, given the significant risk of a persistent impaired glycemic regulation at follow-up, it is advisable to control for glucose tolerance in GDM women with diabetes-related autoimmunity.

Presence of diabetes-specific autoimmunity in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) predicts impaired glucose regulation at follow-up

Incani, M.
;
Pani, M. G.;GATTU, GIUSEPPINA;SERAFINI, CHIARA;STRAZZERA, ANTONIO;Baroni, M. G.
2018-01-01

Abstract

Purpose: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the most frequent complication of pregnancy; around 10% of GDM cases may be determined by autoimmunity, and our aims were to establish the role of autoimmunity in a population of Sardinian women affected by GDM, to find predictive factors for autoimmune GDM, and to determine type 1 diabetes (T1D) auto-antibodies (Aabs) together with glucose tolerance after a mean 21.2 months of follow-up. Methods: We consecutively recruited 143 women affected by GDM and 60 without GDM; clinical data and pregnancy outcomes were obtained by outpatient visit or phone recall. T1D auto-antibodies GADA, IA2-A, IAA, ZnT8-A were measured in the whole population at baseline, and in the Aab-positive women at follow-up. Results: The overall prevalence of autoimmunity was 6.4% (13/203). No significant difference was found in the prevalence of auto-antibodies between GDM (5.6%) and control (8.3%) women, neither in antibody titres. Highest titres for GADA and ZnT8-A were observed in the control group; no phenotypic factors were predictive for autoimmune GDM. Diabetes-related autoantibodies were still present in all the GDM women at follow-up, and their presence was associated with a 2.65 (p < 0.0016) relative risk (RR) of glucose impairment. Conclusion: We observed a low prevalence (5.6%) of diabetes-related autoimmunity in our GDM cohort, consistent with the prevalence reported in previous studies. It was not possible to uncover features predictive of autoimmune GDM. However, given the significant risk of a persistent impaired glycemic regulation at follow-up, it is advisable to control for glucose tolerance in GDM women with diabetes-related autoimmunity.
Autoantibodies; Follow-up; GADA; IA2-A; Type 1 diabetes; ZnT8; Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism; Endocrinology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/242732
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