Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to regulate the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but it is not known whether this drug can affect the neuronal responses to BDNF. In the present study, we show that in retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, prolonged exposure to VPA reduces the expression of the BDNF receptor TrkB at the protein and mRNA levels and inhibits the intracellular signaling, neurotrophic activity, and prosurvival function of BDNF. VPA downregulates TrkB and curtails BDNF-induced signaling also in differentiated Kelly and LAN-1 neuroblastoma cells and primary mouse cortical neurons. The VPA effect is mimicked by several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including the class I HDAC inhibitors entinostat and romidepsin. Conversely, the class II HDAC inhibitor MC1568, the HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin, the HDAC8 inhibitor PCI-34051, and the VPA derivative valpromide have no effect. In neuroblastoma cells and primary neurons both VPA and entinostat increase the cellular levels of the transcription factor RUNX3, which negatively regulates TrkB gene expression. Treatment with RUNX3 siRNA attenuates VPA-induced RUNX3 elevation and TrkB downregulation. VPA, entinostat, HDAC1 depletion by siRNA, and 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an inhibitor of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2), decrease the PRC2 core component EZH2, a RUNX3 suppressor. Like VPA, HDAC1 depletion and DZNep increase RUNX3 and decrease TrkB expression. These results indicate that VPA downregulates TrkB through epigenetic mechanisms involving the EZH2/RUNX3 axis and provide evidence that this effect implicates relevant consequences with regard to BDNF efficacy in stimulating intracellular signaling and functional responses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) mediates the stimulatory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival and is highly expressed in aggressive neuroblastoma and other tumors. Here we show that exposure to valproic acid (VPA) downregulates TrkB expression and functional activity in retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma cell lines and primary mouse cortical neurons. The effects of VPA are mimicked by other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and HDAC1 knockdown and appear to be mediated by an epigenetic mechanism involving the upregulation of RUNX3, a suppressor of TrkB gene expression. TrkB downregulation may have relevance for the use of VPA as a potential therapeutic agent in neuroblastoma and other pathologies characterized by an excessive BDNF/TrkB signaling.

Downregulation of TrkB expression and signaling by valproic acid and other histone deacetylase inhibitors

Dedoni S.
Primo
Investigation
;
Marras L.
Secondo
Investigation
;
Olianas M. C.
Investigation
;
Ingianni A.
Penultimo
Investigation
;
Onali P.
Ultimo
Conceptualization
2019-01-01

Abstract

Valproic acid (VPA) has been shown to regulate the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), but it is not known whether this drug can affect the neuronal responses to BDNF. In the present study, we show that in retinoic acid-differentiated SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells, prolonged exposure to VPA reduces the expression of the BDNF receptor TrkB at the protein and mRNA levels and inhibits the intracellular signaling, neurotrophic activity, and prosurvival function of BDNF. VPA downregulates TrkB and curtails BDNF-induced signaling also in differentiated Kelly and LAN-1 neuroblastoma cells and primary mouse cortical neurons. The VPA effect is mimicked by several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including the class I HDAC inhibitors entinostat and romidepsin. Conversely, the class II HDAC inhibitor MC1568, the HDAC6 inhibitor tubacin, the HDAC8 inhibitor PCI-34051, and the VPA derivative valpromide have no effect. In neuroblastoma cells and primary neurons both VPA and entinostat increase the cellular levels of the transcription factor RUNX3, which negatively regulates TrkB gene expression. Treatment with RUNX3 siRNA attenuates VPA-induced RUNX3 elevation and TrkB downregulation. VPA, entinostat, HDAC1 depletion by siRNA, and 3-deazaneplanocin A (DZNep), an inhibitor of the polycomb repressor complex 2 (PRC2), decrease the PRC2 core component EZH2, a RUNX3 suppressor. Like VPA, HDAC1 depletion and DZNep increase RUNX3 and decrease TrkB expression. These results indicate that VPA downregulates TrkB through epigenetic mechanisms involving the EZH2/RUNX3 axis and provide evidence that this effect implicates relevant consequences with regard to BDNF efficacy in stimulating intracellular signaling and functional responses.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTThe tropomyosin-related kinase receptor B (TrkB) mediates the stimulatory effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on neuronal growth, differentiation, and survival and is highly expressed in aggressive neuroblastoma and other tumors. Here we show that exposure to valproic acid (VPA) downregulates TrkB expression and functional activity in retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma cell lines and primary mouse cortical neurons. The effects of VPA are mimicked by other histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors and HDAC1 knockdown and appear to be mediated by an epigenetic mechanism involving the upregulation of RUNX3, a suppressor of TrkB gene expression. TrkB downregulation may have relevance for the use of VPA as a potential therapeutic agent in neuroblastoma and other pathologies characterized by an excessive BDNF/TrkB signaling.
2019
SH-SY5Y NEUROBLASTOMA-CELLS; NEUROTROPHIN RECEPTOR TRKB; SURFACE EXPRESSION; HDAC INHIBITORS; MESSENGER-RNA; APOPTOSIS; SURVIVAL; RUNX3; BDNF; DIFFERENTIATION
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/279810
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