The paper is a critical review of the last thirty years of studies on the topic of origins of human language. The survey starts with an analysis of some prehistoric data relating to both anatomical and cognitive conditions of our distant ancestors, as to their social organization and their inter-action with the surrounding land and reality. These data, along with some salient features (some of which ralready explored by nineteenth century linguists) found in recent more linguistic studies, are examined also in relation to certain assumptions about the nature and possible forms of an original proto-language. Observations on "basic" forms of communication, as well as on animal behavior, particularly that of primates (who have shown abilities in learning communication systems more complex than those developed naturally by their species) complete the picture and show the possibility to revaluate a topic - that of the the origin our species' communication systems -from a new perspective that can overcome some limitations that have characterized this area of study till a few decades ago.
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