Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) currently act as risk predictors for CVD/Stroke risk assessment. Over 2000 articles have been published that cover either use cIMT/CP or alterations of cIMT/ CP and additional image-based phenotypes to associate cIMT related markers with CVD/Stroke risk. These articles have shown variable results, which likely reflect a lack of standardization in the tools for measurement, risk stratification, and risk assessment. Guidelines for cIMT/CP measurement are influenced by major factors like the atherosclerosis disease itself, conventional risk factors, 10-year measurement tools, types of CVD/ Stroke risk calculators, incomplete validation of measurement tools, and the fast pace of computer technology advancements. This review discusses the following major points: 1) the American Society of Echocardiography and Mannheim guidelines for cIMT/CP measurements; 2) forces that influence the guidelines; and 3) calculators for risk stratification and assessment under the influence of advanced intelligence methods. The review also presents the knowledge-based learning strategies such as machine and deep learning which may play a future role in CVD/stroke risk assessment. We conclude that both machine learning and non-machine learning strategies will flourish for current and 10-year CVD/Stroke risk prediction as long as they integrate image-based phenotypes with conventional risk factors.

Global perspective on carotid intima-media thickness and plaque: Should the current measurement guidelines be revisited?

Saba L.
Primo
;
2019-01-01

Abstract

Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque (CP) currently act as risk predictors for CVD/Stroke risk assessment. Over 2000 articles have been published that cover either use cIMT/CP or alterations of cIMT/ CP and additional image-based phenotypes to associate cIMT related markers with CVD/Stroke risk. These articles have shown variable results, which likely reflect a lack of standardization in the tools for measurement, risk stratification, and risk assessment. Guidelines for cIMT/CP measurement are influenced by major factors like the atherosclerosis disease itself, conventional risk factors, 10-year measurement tools, types of CVD/ Stroke risk calculators, incomplete validation of measurement tools, and the fast pace of computer technology advancements. This review discusses the following major points: 1) the American Society of Echocardiography and Mannheim guidelines for cIMT/CP measurements; 2) forces that influence the guidelines; and 3) calculators for risk stratification and assessment under the influence of advanced intelligence methods. The review also presents the knowledge-based learning strategies such as machine and deep learning which may play a future role in CVD/stroke risk assessment. We conclude that both machine learning and non-machine learning strategies will flourish for current and 10-year CVD/Stroke risk prediction as long as they integrate image-based phenotypes with conventional risk factors.
Cardiovascular diseases; Carotid arteries; Stroke; Ultrasonography
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/283810
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