The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily is responsible for the metabolism of most xenobiotics and pharmacological treatments generally used in clinical settings. Genetic factors as well as environmental determinants acting through fine epigenetic mechanisms modulate the expression of CYP over the lifespan (fetal vs. infancy vs. adult phases) and in diverse organs. In addition, pathological processes might alter the expression of CYP. In this selective review, we sought to summarize the evidence on the expression of CYP focusing on three specific aspects: (a) the anatomical distribution of the expression in body districts relevant in terms of drug pharmacokinetics (liver, gut, and kidney) and pharmacodynamics, focusing for the latter on the brain, since this is the target organ of psychopharmacological agents; (b) the patterns of expression during developmental phases; and (c) the expression of CYP450 enzymes during pathological processes such as cancer. We showed that CYP isoforms show distinct patterns of expression depending on the body district and the specific developmental phases. Of particular relevance for neuropsychopharmacology is the complex regulatory mechanisms that significantly modulate the complexity of the pharmacokinetic regulation, including the concentration of specific CYP isoforms in distinct areas of the brain, where they could greatly affect local substrate and metabolite concentrations of drugs.

Anatomical distribution and expression of CYP in humans: Neuropharmacological implications

Fanni D.
Primo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Pinna F.
Secondo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Gerosa C.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Paribello P.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Carpiniello B.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Faa G.
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Manchia M.
Ultimo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2021

Abstract

The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) superfamily is responsible for the metabolism of most xenobiotics and pharmacological treatments generally used in clinical settings. Genetic factors as well as environmental determinants acting through fine epigenetic mechanisms modulate the expression of CYP over the lifespan (fetal vs. infancy vs. adult phases) and in diverse organs. In addition, pathological processes might alter the expression of CYP. In this selective review, we sought to summarize the evidence on the expression of CYP focusing on three specific aspects: (a) the anatomical distribution of the expression in body districts relevant in terms of drug pharmacokinetics (liver, gut, and kidney) and pharmacodynamics, focusing for the latter on the brain, since this is the target organ of psychopharmacological agents; (b) the patterns of expression during developmental phases; and (c) the expression of CYP450 enzymes during pathological processes such as cancer. We showed that CYP isoforms show distinct patterns of expression depending on the body district and the specific developmental phases. Of particular relevance for neuropsychopharmacology is the complex regulatory mechanisms that significantly modulate the complexity of the pharmacokinetic regulation, including the concentration of specific CYP isoforms in distinct areas of the brain, where they could greatly affect local substrate and metabolite concentrations of drugs.
Side effects; CYP450; Drug–drug interaction; Metabolism; Neurobiology; Neuropharmacology
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/307343
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