Background: Olfactory dysfunctions and hallucinations are considered common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Visual and auditory hallucinations are well-known; however, olfactory hallucinations (OHs) are not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate OHs in PD patients, and their correlation to motor impairment, cognitive abilities, visual and auditory hallucinations, and olfactory and gustatory function. Methods: A sample of 273 patients was enrolled: 141 PD patients (mean age SD: 70.1 9.5 years) and 132 healthy controls (mean age SD: 69.4 9.6 years). In all patients, the following parameters were evaluated: motor symptoms (UPDRSIII), olfactory function, cognitive abilities, and occurrence of OH, gustatory hallucinations (GHs), and visual/auditory hallucinations. Results: OHs were found only in PD patients with a percentage of 11.3%. Among PD patients with OHs, 2.8% also presented GHs. High significant frequencies of females, the presence of visual/auditory hallucinations, and a high mean UPDRS-III score were found in patients with OHs related to patients without them. Binary logistic regression evidenced the presence of visual/auditory hallucinations and sex as main variables predicting the presence of OHs. Conclusions: Our data indicated that OHs occur frequently in PD patients, especially in women, and often concomitant with visual and auditory hallucinations, without any association with olfactory impairment.

Frequency and Determinants of Olfactory Hallucinations in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

Paolo Solla
;
Carla Masala
;
Tommaso Ercoli;Francesco Loy;Laura Fadda;Giovanni Defazio
2021

Abstract

Background: Olfactory dysfunctions and hallucinations are considered common nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Visual and auditory hallucinations are well-known; however, olfactory hallucinations (OHs) are not fully investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate OHs in PD patients, and their correlation to motor impairment, cognitive abilities, visual and auditory hallucinations, and olfactory and gustatory function. Methods: A sample of 273 patients was enrolled: 141 PD patients (mean age SD: 70.1 9.5 years) and 132 healthy controls (mean age SD: 69.4 9.6 years). In all patients, the following parameters were evaluated: motor symptoms (UPDRSIII), olfactory function, cognitive abilities, and occurrence of OH, gustatory hallucinations (GHs), and visual/auditory hallucinations. Results: OHs were found only in PD patients with a percentage of 11.3%. Among PD patients with OHs, 2.8% also presented GHs. High significant frequencies of females, the presence of visual/auditory hallucinations, and a high mean UPDRS-III score were found in patients with OHs related to patients without them. Binary logistic regression evidenced the presence of visual/auditory hallucinations and sex as main variables predicting the presence of OHs. Conclusions: Our data indicated that OHs occur frequently in PD patients, especially in women, and often concomitant with visual and auditory hallucinations, without any association with olfactory impairment.
Parkinson’s disease; olfactory dysfunctions; olfactory hallucinations; gustatory hallucinations
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/314900
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