The early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) is essential in order to differentiate CJD from treatable rapidly progressive dementias. Diagnostic investigations supportive of clinical CJD diagnosis include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), 14-3-3 protein detection, and/or real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay positivity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in other tissues. The total CSF tau protein concentration has also been used in a clinical setting for improving the CJD diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We analyzed 182 CSF samples and 42 olfactory mucosa (OM) brushings from patients suspected of having sCJD with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), in order to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 14-3-3, the total tau protein, and the RT-QuIC assay. A probable and definite sCJD diagnosis was assessed in 102 patients. The RT-QuIC assay on the CSF samples showed a 100% specificity and a 96% sensitivity, significantly higher compared with 14-3-3 (84% sensitivity and 46% specificity) and tau (85% sensitivity and 70% specificity); however, the combination of RT-QuIC testing of the CSF and OM samples resulted in 100% sensitivity and specificity, proving a significantly higher accuracy of RT-QuIC compared with the surrogate biomarkers in the diagnostic setting of patients with RPD. Moreover, we showed that CSF blood contamination or high protein levels might interfere with RT-QuIC seeding. In conclusion, we provided further evidence that the inclusion of an RT-QuIC assay of the CSF and OM in the diagnostic criteria for sCJD has radically changed the clinical approach towards the diagnosis.

High diagnostic accuracy of RT-QuIC assay in a prospective study of patients with suspected sCJD

Sarah Vascellari;Gianluigi Zanusso
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

The early and accurate in vivo diagnosis of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (sCJD) is essential in order to differentiate CJD from treatable rapidly progressive dementias. Diagnostic investigations supportive of clinical CJD diagnosis include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalogram (EEG), 14-3-3 protein detection, and/or real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay positivity in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or in other tissues. The total CSF tau protein concentration has also been used in a clinical setting for improving the CJD diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We analyzed 182 CSF samples and 42 olfactory mucosa (OM) brushings from patients suspected of having sCJD with rapidly progressive dementia (RPD), in order to determine the diagnostic accuracy of 14-3-3, the total tau protein, and the RT-QuIC assay. A probable and definite sCJD diagnosis was assessed in 102 patients. The RT-QuIC assay on the CSF samples showed a 100% specificity and a 96% sensitivity, significantly higher compared with 14-3-3 (84% sensitivity and 46% specificity) and tau (85% sensitivity and 70% specificity); however, the combination of RT-QuIC testing of the CSF and OM samples resulted in 100% sensitivity and specificity, proving a significantly higher accuracy of RT-QuIC compared with the surrogate biomarkers in the diagnostic setting of patients with RPD. Moreover, we showed that CSF blood contamination or high protein levels might interfere with RT-QuIC seeding. In conclusion, we provided further evidence that the inclusion of an RT-QuIC assay of the CSF and OM in the diagnostic criteria for sCJD has radically changed the clinical approach towards the diagnosis.
2020
prion; CSF; RT-QuIC; sCJD; rapidly progressive dementia; biomarkers
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/318238
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