In tokamak nuclear fusion reactors, one of the main issues is to know the total emission of radiation, which is mandatory to understand the plasma physics and is very useful to monitor and control the plasma evolution. This radiation can be measured by means of a bolometer system that consists in a certain number of elements sensitive to the integral of the radiation along straight lines crossing the plasma. By placing the sensors in such a way to have families of crossing lines, sophisticated tomographic inversion algorithms allow to reconstruct the radiation tomography in the 2D poloidal cross-section of the plasma. In tokamaks, the number of projection cameras is often quite limited resulting in an inversion mathematic problem very ill conditioned so that, usually, it is solved by means of a grid-based, iterative constrained optimization procedure, whose convergence time is not suitable for the real time requirements. In this paper, to illustrate the method, an assumption not valid in general is made on the correlation among the grid elements, based on the statistical distribution of the radiation emissivity over a set of tomographic reconstructions, performed off-line. Then, a regularization procedure is carried out, which merge highly correlated grid elements providing a squared coefficients matrix with an enough low condition number. This matrix, which is inverted offline once for all, can be multiplied by the actual bolometer measures returning the tomographic reconstruction, with calculations suitable for real time application. The proposed algorithm is applied, in this paper, to a synthetic case study.

A real time bolometer tomographic reconstruction algorithm in nuclear fusion reactors

Montisci A.;Carcangiu S.;Sias G.;Cannas B.;Fanni A.
2021

Abstract

In tokamak nuclear fusion reactors, one of the main issues is to know the total emission of radiation, which is mandatory to understand the plasma physics and is very useful to monitor and control the plasma evolution. This radiation can be measured by means of a bolometer system that consists in a certain number of elements sensitive to the integral of the radiation along straight lines crossing the plasma. By placing the sensors in such a way to have families of crossing lines, sophisticated tomographic inversion algorithms allow to reconstruct the radiation tomography in the 2D poloidal cross-section of the plasma. In tokamaks, the number of projection cameras is often quite limited resulting in an inversion mathematic problem very ill conditioned so that, usually, it is solved by means of a grid-based, iterative constrained optimization procedure, whose convergence time is not suitable for the real time requirements. In this paper, to illustrate the method, an assumption not valid in general is made on the correlation among the grid elements, based on the statistical distribution of the radiation emissivity over a set of tomographic reconstructions, performed off-line. Then, a regularization procedure is carried out, which merge highly correlated grid elements providing a squared coefficients matrix with an enough low condition number. This matrix, which is inverted offline once for all, can be multiplied by the actual bolometer measures returning the tomographic reconstruction, with calculations suitable for real time application. The proposed algorithm is applied, in this paper, to a synthetic case study.
numerical techniques; mathematical modeling; nuclear fusion; tokamaks; bolometer; plasma tomography
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/323899
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