Copper amine oxidases utilize 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (topaquinone) as a cofactor in enzymatic catalysis. This cofactor is formed from a tyrosine residue through a self-catalytic mechanism with the participation of the copper ion at the active site. Although pathways have been postulated for topaquinone biogenesis, portions of this scheme are still unclear. We utilized 4-tert-butyl-derived models for the putative intermediates of topaquinone generation and studied the effect of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions on each autoxidative step from dopa-to topaquinone-like compounds at physiological pH (7.4). Several polyvinyl-alcohol-based soluble resins bearing mono-and di-hydroxyphenolic moieties were also pre pared, and their tendency to give hydroxyquinonic structures when incubated at alkaline pH values was investigated. Our results confirm (although indirectly) the formation of dopa and dopaquinone during topaquinone biosynthesis. Moreover, we collected evidence that, following the formation of dopa, the role of the active-site copper ion in topaquinone biogenesis would be limited to the catalysis of the two subsequent quinonization steps (i.e. from dopa to dopaquinone and from topa to topaquinone), thus disfavoring the possibility of a direct intervention of the metal ion in the hydroxylation of dopaquinone. In particular, Cu(II) was shown to influence deeply the autoxidation of 1,2,5-trihydroxy-4-tert-butylbenzene, used as model of topa, both increasing the reaction rate and changing its mechanism. The mechanistic implications of these findings for the biogenesis of topaquinone and its analogs at the active site of various amine oxidases are discussed.
|Titolo:||Biosynthesis of the topaquinone cofactor in copper amine oxidases - evidence from model studies|
|Data di pubblicazione:||1998|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|