Successful human behaviour relies on the ability to flexibly alter movements depending on the context in which they are made. One such context-dependent modulation is proactive inhibition, a type of behavioural inhibition used when anticipating the need to stop or change movements. We investigated how the motor cortex might prepare and execute movements made under different contexts. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in different coil orientations (PA: postero-anterior and AP: antero-posterior flowing currents) and pulse widths (120 µs and 30 µs) to probe the excitability of different inputs to corticospinal neurons whilst participants performed two reaction time tasks: a simple reaction time task and a stop-signal task requiring proactive inhibition. We took inspiration from state space models to assess whether the pattern of motor cortex activity changed due to proactive inhibition (PA and AP neuronal circuits represent the x and y axes of a state space upon which motor cortex activity unfolds during motor preparation and execution). We found that the rise in motor cortex excitability was delayed when proactive inhibition was required. State space visualisations showed altered patterns of motor cortex activity (combined PA120 and AP30 activity) during proactive inhibition, despite adjusting for reaction time. Overall, we show that the pattern of neural activity generated by the motor cortex during movement preparation and execution is dependent upon the context under which the movement is to be made.

Proactive inhibition is marked by differences in the pattern of motor cortex activity during movement preparation and execution

Rocchi, Lorenzo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Successful human behaviour relies on the ability to flexibly alter movements depending on the context in which they are made. One such context-dependent modulation is proactive inhibition, a type of behavioural inhibition used when anticipating the need to stop or change movements. We investigated how the motor cortex might prepare and execute movements made under different contexts. We used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in different coil orientations (PA: postero-anterior and AP: antero-posterior flowing currents) and pulse widths (120 µs and 30 µs) to probe the excitability of different inputs to corticospinal neurons whilst participants performed two reaction time tasks: a simple reaction time task and a stop-signal task requiring proactive inhibition. We took inspiration from state space models to assess whether the pattern of motor cortex activity changed due to proactive inhibition (PA and AP neuronal circuits represent the x and y axes of a state space upon which motor cortex activity unfolds during motor preparation and execution). We found that the rise in motor cortex excitability was delayed when proactive inhibition was required. State space visualisations showed altered patterns of motor cortex activity (combined PA120 and AP30 activity) during proactive inhibition, despite adjusting for reaction time. Overall, we show that the pattern of neural activity generated by the motor cortex during movement preparation and execution is dependent upon the context under which the movement is to be made.
2022
Dynamical systems; Motor control; Proactive inhibition; Transcranial magnetic stimulation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/329633
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