Background. Loss of olfaction is a well-established early feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although olfactory dysfunction has been widely described as a prodromal feature of PD in the literature, whether it can be considered a biomarker of PD progression is still a matter of debate. Objective. The aim of this work is to define the possible relationship between the progression of olfactory dysfunction and other putative clinical hallmarks of PD over time, through a systematic review of the current literature. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed from inception to March 2022. We included only longitudinal studies conducted on patients with diagnosis of idiopathic PD who underwent olfactory function testing at baseline and repeated it at least once during follow-up. Results. Among 5740 records identified through database searching, nine longitudinal studies met full criteria and underwent data extraction. Conclusions. Olfaction seemed to decrease over time, albeit with a degree of fluctuation. Moreover, smell detection ability seems to deteriorate more rapidly in the early phase of disease, indicating a possible association with disease progression. More studies are needed to better understand the role of olfaction as a biomarker of PD progression over time.

Does Olfactory Dysfunction Correlate with Disease Progression in Parkinson’s Disease? A Systematic Review of the Current Literature

Tommaso Ercoli
;
Carla Masala;Gianluca Cadeddu;Marcello Mario Mascia;Paolo Solla;Giovanni Defazio;Lorenzo Rocchi
2022

Abstract

Background. Loss of olfaction is a well-established early feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Although olfactory dysfunction has been widely described as a prodromal feature of PD in the literature, whether it can be considered a biomarker of PD progression is still a matter of debate. Objective. The aim of this work is to define the possible relationship between the progression of olfactory dysfunction and other putative clinical hallmarks of PD over time, through a systematic review of the current literature. Methods. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on PubMed from inception to March 2022. We included only longitudinal studies conducted on patients with diagnosis of idiopathic PD who underwent olfactory function testing at baseline and repeated it at least once during follow-up. Results. Among 5740 records identified through database searching, nine longitudinal studies met full criteria and underwent data extraction. Conclusions. Olfaction seemed to decrease over time, albeit with a degree of fluctuation. Moreover, smell detection ability seems to deteriorate more rapidly in the early phase of disease, indicating a possible association with disease progression. More studies are needed to better understand the role of olfaction as a biomarker of PD progression over time.
Parkinson’s disease; Olfactory dysfunction; Disease progression; Smell; Olfaction
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11584/333068
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