The geochemical fractionation and potential mobilization of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and lead were studied in surficial sediments (top 0–10 cm; <63 μm grain-size) of the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary, eastern part of India, using a sequential extraction procedure. The risk assessment was evaluated at three specific levels; i.e., enrichment level (enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index), the availability level (elements bound to different fractions, risk assessment code, Individual and Global contamination factors) and biological toxicity level (Potential ecological risk index; sediment quality guidelines). Different geochemical phases indicated heterogeneities in TE distribution patterns as follows: (i) Cd was dominant in the exchangeable phase and significant proportion of Pb was bounded to the reducible fractions; (ii) the potential mobile fraction (ΣF1 − F3) in the sediments was higher for Cd and Pb (>46%), reflecting their adverse impact on benthic organisms as they are weakly bound to the sediment and can migrate to water; (iii) a minor fraction of Cu (<10%) was found in the oxidizable fraction suggesting less environmental risk to the aquatic biota and (iv) the dominance of the Ni, Cr and Cu in the residual fraction supports the assumption of their geogenic origin. Both Cd and Cu posed medium to high ecological risk values based on risk assessment code (RAC). Global Contamination Factor (GCF) values allowed to identify the “pollution hotspots” in the study area.

Geochemical fractionation and risk assessment of trace elements in sediments from tide-dominated Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary, India

Schintu M.
Secondo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Marras B.
Investigation
;
Bettoschi A.;Marrucci A.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

The geochemical fractionation and potential mobilization of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel and lead were studied in surficial sediments (top 0–10 cm; <63 μm grain-size) of the Hooghly (Ganges) River Estuary, eastern part of India, using a sequential extraction procedure. The risk assessment was evaluated at three specific levels; i.e., enrichment level (enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index), the availability level (elements bound to different fractions, risk assessment code, Individual and Global contamination factors) and biological toxicity level (Potential ecological risk index; sediment quality guidelines). Different geochemical phases indicated heterogeneities in TE distribution patterns as follows: (i) Cd was dominant in the exchangeable phase and significant proportion of Pb was bounded to the reducible fractions; (ii) the potential mobile fraction (ΣF1 − F3) in the sediments was higher for Cd and Pb (>46%), reflecting their adverse impact on benthic organisms as they are weakly bound to the sediment and can migrate to water; (iii) a minor fraction of Cu (<10%) was found in the oxidizable fraction suggesting less environmental risk to the aquatic biota and (iv) the dominance of the Ni, Cr and Cu in the residual fraction supports the assumption of their geogenic origin. Both Cd and Cu posed medium to high ecological risk values based on risk assessment code (RAC). Global Contamination Factor (GCF) values allowed to identify the “pollution hotspots” in the study area.
2020
Bioavailability; Environmental risk; Geochemical fractionation; Hooghly River Estuary; Mobility; Trace elements
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/335973
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