This study was aimed at characterizing the gut microbiota (GM) and its functional profile in two groups of Sardinian subjects with a long healthy life expectancy, overall named Long-Lived Subjects (LLS) [17 centenarians (CENT) and 29 nonagenarians (NON)] by comparing them to 46 healthy younger controls (CTLs). In addition, the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to the GM phenotype was assessed by comparing a subgroup of seven centenarian parents (CPAR) with a paired cohort of centenarians' offspring (COFF). The analysis was performed through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the V3 and V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene on the MiSeq Illumina platform. The Verrucomicrobia phylum was identified as the main biomarker in CENT, together with its members Verrucomicrobiaceae, Akkermansia and Akkermansia muciniphila. In NON, the strongest associations concern Actinobacteria phylum, Bifidobacteriaceae and Bifidobacterium, while in CTLs were related to the Bacteroidetes phylum, Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroides and Bacteroides spp. Intestinal microbiota of CPAR and COFF did not differ significantly from each other. Significant correlations between bacterial taxa and clinical and lifestyle data, especially with Mediterranean diet adherence, were observed. We observed a harmonically balanced intestinal community structure in which the increase in taxa associated with intestinal health would limit and counteract the action of potentially pathogenic bacterial species in centenarians. The GM of long-lived individuals showed an intrinsic ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, as confirmed by functional analysis. The GM analysis of centenarians' offspring suggest that genetics and environmental factors act synergistically as a multifactorial cause in the modulation of GM towards a phenotype similar to that of centenarians, although these findings need to be confirmed by larger study cohorts and by prospective studies.

Gut Microbiota Markers and Dietary Habits Associated with Extreme Longevity in Healthy Sardinian Centenarians

Palmas, Vanessa;Pisanu, Silvia;Madau, Veronica;Casula, Emanuela;Deledda, Andrea;Cusano, Roberto;Loviselli, Andrea;Velluzzi, Fernanda;Manzin, Aldo
2022-01-01

Abstract

This study was aimed at characterizing the gut microbiota (GM) and its functional profile in two groups of Sardinian subjects with a long healthy life expectancy, overall named Long-Lived Subjects (LLS) [17 centenarians (CENT) and 29 nonagenarians (NON)] by comparing them to 46 healthy younger controls (CTLs). In addition, the contribution of genetics and environmental factors to the GM phenotype was assessed by comparing a subgroup of seven centenarian parents (CPAR) with a paired cohort of centenarians' offspring (COFF). The analysis was performed through Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the V3 and V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene on the MiSeq Illumina platform. The Verrucomicrobia phylum was identified as the main biomarker in CENT, together with its members Verrucomicrobiaceae, Akkermansia and Akkermansia muciniphila. In NON, the strongest associations concern Actinobacteria phylum, Bifidobacteriaceae and Bifidobacterium, while in CTLs were related to the Bacteroidetes phylum, Bacteroidaceae, Bacteroides and Bacteroides spp. Intestinal microbiota of CPAR and COFF did not differ significantly from each other. Significant correlations between bacterial taxa and clinical and lifestyle data, especially with Mediterranean diet adherence, were observed. We observed a harmonically balanced intestinal community structure in which the increase in taxa associated with intestinal health would limit and counteract the action of potentially pathogenic bacterial species in centenarians. The GM of long-lived individuals showed an intrinsic ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, as confirmed by functional analysis. The GM analysis of centenarians' offspring suggest that genetics and environmental factors act synergistically as a multifactorial cause in the modulation of GM towards a phenotype similar to that of centenarians, although these findings need to be confirmed by larger study cohorts and by prospective studies.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/339349
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