During the Bronze Age, in many Western Mediterranean areas (Spain, France, Italian peninsula, islands), we can observe the development of a series of fortified centers and structures, often on high places, aimed to the defense of strategic locations and resources. These fortifications, which began to be built from the Copper Age, are the answer to a need for possession and control of the territory linked to a greater degree of social complexity, with an ever-increasing hierarchy and the rise to power of persons or groups who very often show the possession of weapons and, consequently, can be related to warlike activities. In Sardinia, Nuragic phenomenon developed during Protohistoy: an extraordinary culture ranging from the Middle to Late Bronze Age (XVIII-XII centuries BC), some of whose features could last from Final Bronze Age until the beginnings of Iron Age (XI-VIII centuries BC), characterized by the building of great monuments, especially nuraghi, cyclopean-type constructions similar to towers. These great buildings have multiple functions, but in particular were used to surveil the whole island territory. We have mainly carried out different GIS analyzes on different sample areas with the aim to reading the visual-perceptive aspects and to try to research about the relationship between settlements and territory and the mobility systems across different territories through the applying of the least-cost path analysis. Reconstruction of certain characteristics of Sardinian Protohistoric Landscape in these areas is achieved. GIS-based analysis show how these territorial control systems, consisting of several nuraghi and settlements, were intended to control the most important natural and economic resources and transit routes.

Protohistoric landscapes in Sardinia (Italy): territorial control and exploitation of natural resources in the Middle and Late Bronze ages = Paisajes protohistóricos en Cerdeña (Italia): Control territorial y explotación de recursos naturales en las edades del Bronce Pleno y Tardío

R. Cicilloni
Primo
;
2021

Abstract

During the Bronze Age, in many Western Mediterranean areas (Spain, France, Italian peninsula, islands), we can observe the development of a series of fortified centers and structures, often on high places, aimed to the defense of strategic locations and resources. These fortifications, which began to be built from the Copper Age, are the answer to a need for possession and control of the territory linked to a greater degree of social complexity, with an ever-increasing hierarchy and the rise to power of persons or groups who very often show the possession of weapons and, consequently, can be related to warlike activities. In Sardinia, Nuragic phenomenon developed during Protohistoy: an extraordinary culture ranging from the Middle to Late Bronze Age (XVIII-XII centuries BC), some of whose features could last from Final Bronze Age until the beginnings of Iron Age (XI-VIII centuries BC), characterized by the building of great monuments, especially nuraghi, cyclopean-type constructions similar to towers. These great buildings have multiple functions, but in particular were used to surveil the whole island territory. We have mainly carried out different GIS analyzes on different sample areas with the aim to reading the visual-perceptive aspects and to try to research about the relationship between settlements and territory and the mobility systems across different territories through the applying of the least-cost path analysis. Reconstruction of certain characteristics of Sardinian Protohistoric Landscape in these areas is achieved. GIS-based analysis show how these territorial control systems, consisting of several nuraghi and settlements, were intended to control the most important natural and economic resources and transit routes.
Durante la Edad del Bronce, en muchas areas del Mediterraneo occidental (Espana, Francia, peninsula italiana, islas), podemos observar el desarrollo de una serie de centros y estructuras fortificadas, a menudo en lugares altos, destinados a la defensa de ubicaciones estrategicas y recursos. Estas fortificaciones, que comenzaron a construirse a partir de la Edad del Cobre, son la respuesta a la necesidad de apropiacion y control del territorio vinculada a un mayor grado de complejidad social, con una jerarquia cada vez mayor y el ascenso al poder de personas o grupos, que a menudo muestran la posesion de armas y, en consecuencia, pueden estar relacionados con actividades belicas. En Cerdena, el fenomeno nuragico se desarrollo durante la Prehistoria Reciente: una cultura extraordinaria que abarca desde la Edad del Bronce Media hasta la Tardia (siglos XVIII-XII a.C.), algunas de cuyas caracteristicas podrian perdurar desde la Edad del Bronce Final hasta el comienzo de la Edad del Hierro (siglos XI-VIII a.C.), que se caracteriza por la construccion de grandes monumentos, especialmente nuraghi, construcciones de tipo ciclopeo similares a las torres. Estos grandes edificios tienen multiples funciones, pero en particular se destinaron a vigilar todo el territorio de la isla. Principalmente hemos llevado a cabo diferentes analisis de SIG en distintas areas de muestra con el objetivo de leer los aspectos relacionados con la percepcion visual y tratar de investigar la relacion entre los asentamientos y el territorio asi como los sistemas de movilidad en diferentes territorios mediante la aplicacion de herramientas destinadas a calcular las rutas optimas. De esta forma, se logra la reconstruccion de ciertas caracteristicas del paisaje protohistorico sardo en estas areas. El analisis basado en SIG muestra que estos sistemas de control territorial, que consisten en varios nuraghi y asentamientos, tenian la intencion de controlar los recursos naturales y economicos mas importantes y las rutas de transito.
Bronze Age; Sardinia; Nuragic CivilisationZ GIS Analysis; Landscape
Edad de Bronce; Cerdeña; Civilización nurágica; Análisis de SIG; Paisaje
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/345636
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