Almost fifty years after its first introduction into clinical care, clozapine remains the only evidence-based pharmacological option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), which affects approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia. Despite the long-time experience with clozapine, the specific mechanism of action (MOA) responsible for its superior efficacy among antipsychotics is still elusive, both at the receptor and intracellular signaling level. This systematic review is aimed at critically assessing the role and specific relevance of clozapine's multimodal actions, dissecting those mechanisms that under a translational perspective could shed light on molecular targets worth to be considered for further innovative antipsychotic development. In vivo and in vitro preclinical findings, supported by innovative techniques and methods, together with pharmacogenomic and in vivo functional studies, point to multiple and possibly overlapping MOAs. To better explore this crucial issue, the specific affinity for 5-HT2R, D1R, α2c, and muscarinic receptors, the relatively low occupancy at dopamine D2R, the interaction with receptor dimers, as well as the potential confounder effects resulting in biased ligand action, and lastly, the role of the moiety responsible for lipophilic and alkaline features of clozapine are highlighted. Finally, the role of transcription and protein changes at the synaptic level, and the possibility that clozapine can directly impact synaptic architecture are addressed. Although clozapine's exact MOAs that contribute to its unique efficacy and some of its severe adverse effects have not been fully understood, relevant information can be gleaned from recent mechanistic understandings that may help design much needed additional therapeutic strategies for TRS.

Clozapine's multiple cellular mechanisms: What do we know after more than fifty years? A systematic review and critical assessment of translational mechanisms relevant for innovative strategies in treatment-resistant schizophrenia

Manchia, Mirko
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Almost fifty years after its first introduction into clinical care, clozapine remains the only evidence-based pharmacological option for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS), which affects approximately 30% of patients with schizophrenia. Despite the long-time experience with clozapine, the specific mechanism of action (MOA) responsible for its superior efficacy among antipsychotics is still elusive, both at the receptor and intracellular signaling level. This systematic review is aimed at critically assessing the role and specific relevance of clozapine's multimodal actions, dissecting those mechanisms that under a translational perspective could shed light on molecular targets worth to be considered for further innovative antipsychotic development. In vivo and in vitro preclinical findings, supported by innovative techniques and methods, together with pharmacogenomic and in vivo functional studies, point to multiple and possibly overlapping MOAs. To better explore this crucial issue, the specific affinity for 5-HT2R, D1R, α2c, and muscarinic receptors, the relatively low occupancy at dopamine D2R, the interaction with receptor dimers, as well as the potential confounder effects resulting in biased ligand action, and lastly, the role of the moiety responsible for lipophilic and alkaline features of clozapine are highlighted. Finally, the role of transcription and protein changes at the synaptic level, and the possibility that clozapine can directly impact synaptic architecture are addressed. Although clozapine's exact MOAs that contribute to its unique efficacy and some of its severe adverse effects have not been fully understood, relevant information can be gleaned from recent mechanistic understandings that may help design much needed additional therapeutic strategies for TRS.
2022
Antipsychotics; Clozapine; Immediate early genes; Postsynaptic density; Psychosis; Treatment-resistant schizophrenia; Humans; Receptors, Dopamine D2; Schizophrenia
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/346554
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