Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a severe, incurable, and costly condition leading to heart failure. The link between PD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not available, leading to controversies and poor prognosis. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has already shown promise for CVD/stroke risk stratification. However, due to a lack of sample size, comorbidity, insufficient validation, clinical examination, and a lack of big data configuration, there have been no well‐explained bias‐free AI investigations to establish the CVD/Stroke risk stratification in the PD framework. The study has two objectives: (i) to establish a solid link between PD and CVD/stroke; and (ii) to use the AI paradigm to examine a well-defined CVD/stroke risk stratification in the PD framework. The PRISMA search strategy selected 223 studies for CVD/stroke risk, of which 54 and 44 studies were related to the link between PD‐CVD, and PD‐stroke, respectively, 59 studies for joint PD‐CVD‐Stroke framework, and 66 studies were only for the early PD diagnosis without CVD/stroke link. Sequential biological links were used for establishing the hypothesis. For AI design, PD risk factors as covariates along with CVD/stroke as the gold standard were used for predicting the CVD/stroke risk. The most fundamental cause of CVD/stroke damage due to PD is cardiac autonomic dysfunction due to neurodegeneration that leads to heart failure and its edema, and this validated our hypothesis. Finally, we present the novel AI solutions for CVD/stroke risk prediction in the PD framework. The study also recommends strategies for removing the bias in AI for CVD/stroke risk prediction using the PD framework.

Cardiovascular/Stroke Risk Stratification in Parkinson’s Disease Patients Using Atherosclerosis Pathway and Artificial Intelligence Paradigm: A Systematic Review

Saba L.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a severe, incurable, and costly condition leading to heart failure. The link between PD and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is not available, leading to controversies and poor prognosis. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has already shown promise for CVD/stroke risk stratification. However, due to a lack of sample size, comorbidity, insufficient validation, clinical examination, and a lack of big data configuration, there have been no well‐explained bias‐free AI investigations to establish the CVD/Stroke risk stratification in the PD framework. The study has two objectives: (i) to establish a solid link between PD and CVD/stroke; and (ii) to use the AI paradigm to examine a well-defined CVD/stroke risk stratification in the PD framework. The PRISMA search strategy selected 223 studies for CVD/stroke risk, of which 54 and 44 studies were related to the link between PD‐CVD, and PD‐stroke, respectively, 59 studies for joint PD‐CVD‐Stroke framework, and 66 studies were only for the early PD diagnosis without CVD/stroke link. Sequential biological links were used for establishing the hypothesis. For AI design, PD risk factors as covariates along with CVD/stroke as the gold standard were used for predicting the CVD/stroke risk. The most fundamental cause of CVD/stroke damage due to PD is cardiac autonomic dysfunction due to neurodegeneration that leads to heart failure and its edema, and this validated our hypothesis. Finally, we present the novel AI solutions for CVD/stroke risk prediction in the PD framework. The study also recommends strategies for removing the bias in AI for CVD/stroke risk prediction using the PD framework.
2022
Artificial intelligence; Cardiac autonomic dysfunction; Cardiovascular disease; Deep learning; Machine learning; Parkinson’s disease; Recommendations; Stroke
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/347286
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