Background and Motivation: Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often based on medical attention and clinical signs. It is subjective and does not have a good prognosis. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has played a promising role in the diagnosis of PD. However, it introduces bias due to lack of sample size, poor validation, clinical evaluation, and lack of big data configuration. The purpose of this study is to compute the risk of bias (RoB) automatically. Method: The PRISMA search strategy was adopted to select the best 39 AI studies out of 85 PD studies closely associated with early diagnosis PD. The studies were used to compute 30 AI attributes (based on 6 AI clusters), using AP(ai)Bias 1.0 (AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA), and the mean aggregate score was computed. The studies were ranked and two cutoffs (Moderate-Low (ML) and High-Moderate (MH)) were determined to segregate the studies into three bins: low-, moderate-, and high-bias. Result: The ML and HM cutoffs were 3.50 and 2.33, respectively, which constituted 7, 13, and 6 for low-, moderate-, and high-bias studies. The best and worst architectures were “deep learning with sketches as outcomes” and “machine learning with Electroencephalography”, respectively. We recommend (i) the usage of power analysis in big data framework, (ii) that it must undergo scientific validation using unseen AI models, and (iii) that it should be taken towards clinical evaluation for reliability and stability tests. Conclusion: The AI is a vital component for the diagnosis of early PD and the recommendations must be followed to lower the RoB.

Bias Investigation in Artificial Intelligence Systems for Early Detection of Parkinson’s Disease: A Narrative Review

Saba L.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background and Motivation: Diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) is often based on medical attention and clinical signs. It is subjective and does not have a good prognosis. Artificial Intelligence (AI) has played a promising role in the diagnosis of PD. However, it introduces bias due to lack of sample size, poor validation, clinical evaluation, and lack of big data configuration. The purpose of this study is to compute the risk of bias (RoB) automatically. Method: The PRISMA search strategy was adopted to select the best 39 AI studies out of 85 PD studies closely associated with early diagnosis PD. The studies were used to compute 30 AI attributes (based on 6 AI clusters), using AP(ai)Bias 1.0 (AtheroPoint™, Roseville, CA, USA), and the mean aggregate score was computed. The studies were ranked and two cutoffs (Moderate-Low (ML) and High-Moderate (MH)) were determined to segregate the studies into three bins: low-, moderate-, and high-bias. Result: The ML and HM cutoffs were 3.50 and 2.33, respectively, which constituted 7, 13, and 6 for low-, moderate-, and high-bias studies. The best and worst architectures were “deep learning with sketches as outcomes” and “machine learning with Electroencephalography”, respectively. We recommend (i) the usage of power analysis in big data framework, (ii) that it must undergo scientific validation using unseen AI models, and (iii) that it should be taken towards clinical evaluation for reliability and stability tests. Conclusion: The AI is a vital component for the diagnosis of early PD and the recommendations must be followed to lower the RoB.
2022
AI; Bias; Cutoff; Mean score; PD; Recommendations
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/347515
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