Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a prominent technique for medical diagnosis and represents an essential role in detecting brain tumors. Although AI-based models are widely used in brain lesion segmentation (BLS), understanding their effectiveness is challenging due to their complexity and diversity. Several reviews on brain tumor segmentation are available, but none of them describe a link between the threats due to risk-of-bias (RoB) in AI and its architectures. In our review, we focused on linking RoB and different AI-based architectural Cluster in popular DL framework. Further, due to variance in these designs and input data types in medical imaging, it is necessary to present a narrative review considering all facets of BLS. Approach: The proposed study uses a PRISMA strategy based on 75 relevant studies found by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Based on the architectural evolution, DL studies were subsequently categorized into four classes: convolutional neural network (CNN)-based, encoder-decoder (ED)-based, transfer learning (TL)-based, and hybrid DL (HDL)-based architectures. These studies were then analyzed considering 32 AI attributes, with clusters including AI architecture, imaging modalities, hyper-parameters, performance evaluation metrics, and clinical evaluation. Then, after these studies were scored for all attributes, a composite score was computed, normalized, and ranked. Thereafter, a bias cutoff (AP(ai)Bias 1.0, AtheroPoint, Roseville, CA, USA) was established to detect low-, moderate- and high-bias studies. Conclusion: The four classes of architectures, from best-to worst-performing, are TL > ED > CNN > HDL. ED-based models had the lowest AI bias for BLS. This study presents a set of three primary and six secondary recommendations for lowering the RoB.

An artificial intelligence framework and its bias for brain tumor segmentation: A narrative review

Saba L.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a prominent technique for medical diagnosis and represents an essential role in detecting brain tumors. Although AI-based models are widely used in brain lesion segmentation (BLS), understanding their effectiveness is challenging due to their complexity and diversity. Several reviews on brain tumor segmentation are available, but none of them describe a link between the threats due to risk-of-bias (RoB) in AI and its architectures. In our review, we focused on linking RoB and different AI-based architectural Cluster in popular DL framework. Further, due to variance in these designs and input data types in medical imaging, it is necessary to present a narrative review considering all facets of BLS. Approach: The proposed study uses a PRISMA strategy based on 75 relevant studies found by searching PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. Based on the architectural evolution, DL studies were subsequently categorized into four classes: convolutional neural network (CNN)-based, encoder-decoder (ED)-based, transfer learning (TL)-based, and hybrid DL (HDL)-based architectures. These studies were then analyzed considering 32 AI attributes, with clusters including AI architecture, imaging modalities, hyper-parameters, performance evaluation metrics, and clinical evaluation. Then, after these studies were scored for all attributes, a composite score was computed, normalized, and ranked. Thereafter, a bias cutoff (AP(ai)Bias 1.0, AtheroPoint, Roseville, CA, USA) was established to detect low-, moderate- and high-bias studies. Conclusion: The four classes of architectures, from best-to worst-performing, are TL > ED > CNN > HDL. ED-based models had the lowest AI bias for BLS. This study presents a set of three primary and six secondary recommendations for lowering the RoB.
2022
AI; BTS; DL; Hybrid deep learning; RoB; U-Net;
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
pmc 1-s2.0-S0010482522000658-main.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: versione editoriale
Dimensione 22.47 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
22.47 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/347596
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 66
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 53
social impact