Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a compound originating from oil mills during oil extraction processes. In the Mediterranean area, more than 30 million m3 of OMW are pro-duced each year, which represents 95-97% of the world produc-tion. Such volumes of untreated OMW are usually directly dis-posed of into drainage systems, water bodies (such as streams, lagoons and ponds) or are sprinkled on soils, causing potentially severe environmental problems to soils and groundwater. Consequently, there is a serious waste management problem relat-ed to the olive oil industry, because these practices no longer being acceptable. In the case of on-land OMW disposal, the characterization and the identification of this contaminant in soils is a fundamental task especially with a view to maintaining the integrity and quality of agroecosystems. In recent years, soils have been extensively studied to detect contaminants by using various geo-physical methods. Among such techniques, time domain reflec-tometry (TDR) has shown, in different contexts, evident sensitiv-ity and resolution capability for the characterization of contaminated soil sites. In order to further exploit the potential of the TDR technique, in this study we conducted a series of laboratory-con-trolled tests to explore how OMW influences the dielectric response of contaminated soils. This investigation led to the development of an empirical dielectric model to estimate the presence of OMW in variably saturated-contaminated soils with different textures and pedological features. In particular, the soils selected belong to two typical pedological units in southern Italy which account for approximately 90% of the Italian olive plantations and one of the highest concentrations of the olive oil industry in Italy. In these districts, as well as in other European and Mediterranean countries, there is the controversial habit to spread OMW on soils.

Time domain reflectometry for dielectric characterization of olive mill wastewater contaminated soils

Coppola A.;
2020-01-01

Abstract

Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a compound originating from oil mills during oil extraction processes. In the Mediterranean area, more than 30 million m3 of OMW are pro-duced each year, which represents 95-97% of the world produc-tion. Such volumes of untreated OMW are usually directly dis-posed of into drainage systems, water bodies (such as streams, lagoons and ponds) or are sprinkled on soils, causing potentially severe environmental problems to soils and groundwater. Consequently, there is a serious waste management problem relat-ed to the olive oil industry, because these practices no longer being acceptable. In the case of on-land OMW disposal, the characterization and the identification of this contaminant in soils is a fundamental task especially with a view to maintaining the integrity and quality of agroecosystems. In recent years, soils have been extensively studied to detect contaminants by using various geo-physical methods. Among such techniques, time domain reflec-tometry (TDR) has shown, in different contexts, evident sensitiv-ity and resolution capability for the characterization of contaminated soil sites. In order to further exploit the potential of the TDR technique, in this study we conducted a series of laboratory-con-trolled tests to explore how OMW influences the dielectric response of contaminated soils. This investigation led to the development of an empirical dielectric model to estimate the presence of OMW in variably saturated-contaminated soils with different textures and pedological features. In particular, the soils selected belong to two typical pedological units in southern Italy which account for approximately 90% of the Italian olive plantations and one of the highest concentrations of the olive oil industry in Italy. In these districts, as well as in other European and Mediterranean countries, there is the controversial habit to spread OMW on soils.
dielectric models; soil contamination; soil-olive mill wastewater mixtures; time domain reflectometry
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/350180
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