Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated the importance of direction and intensity of the applied current when the primary motor cortex (M1) is targeted. By varying these, it is possible to stimulate different subsets of neural elements, as demonstrated by modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and motor behaviour. The latter involves premotor areas as well, and among them, the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) has recently received significant attention in the study of motor inhibition. It is possible that, similar to M1, different neuronal populations can be activated by varying the direction and intensity of TMS; however, the absence of a direct electrophysiological outcome has limited this investigation. The problem can be solved by quantifying direct cortical responses by means of combined TMS and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). We investigated the effect of variable coil orientations (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees and 270 degrees) and stimulation intensities (100%, 120% and 140% of resting motor threshold) on local mean field potential (LMFP), transcranial evoked potential (TEP) peaks and TMS-related spectral perturbation (TRSP) from pre-SMA stimulation. As a result, early and late LMFP and peaks were larger, with the coil handle pointing posteriorly (0 degrees) and laterally (90 degrees). This was true also for TRSP in the beta-gamma range, but, surprisingly, theta-alpha TRSP was larger with the coil pointing at 180 degrees. A 90 degrees orientation activated the right M1, as shown by MEPs elicitation, thus limiting the spatial specificity of the stimulation. These results suggest that coil orientation and stimulation intensity are critical when stimulating the pre-SMA.

The Effect of Coil Orientation on the Stimulation of the Pre-Supplementary Motor Area: A Combined TMS and EEG Study

Rocchi, Lorenzo
Ultimo
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2022-01-01

Abstract

Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have demonstrated the importance of direction and intensity of the applied current when the primary motor cortex (M1) is targeted. By varying these, it is possible to stimulate different subsets of neural elements, as demonstrated by modulation of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) and motor behaviour. The latter involves premotor areas as well, and among them, the presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) has recently received significant attention in the study of motor inhibition. It is possible that, similar to M1, different neuronal populations can be activated by varying the direction and intensity of TMS; however, the absence of a direct electrophysiological outcome has limited this investigation. The problem can be solved by quantifying direct cortical responses by means of combined TMS and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). We investigated the effect of variable coil orientations (0 degrees, 90 degrees, 180 degrees and 270 degrees) and stimulation intensities (100%, 120% and 140% of resting motor threshold) on local mean field potential (LMFP), transcranial evoked potential (TEP) peaks and TMS-related spectral perturbation (TRSP) from pre-SMA stimulation. As a result, early and late LMFP and peaks were larger, with the coil handle pointing posteriorly (0 degrees) and laterally (90 degrees). This was true also for TRSP in the beta-gamma range, but, surprisingly, theta-alpha TRSP was larger with the coil pointing at 180 degrees. A 90 degrees orientation activated the right M1, as shown by MEPs elicitation, thus limiting the spatial specificity of the stimulation. These results suggest that coil orientation and stimulation intensity are critical when stimulating the pre-SMA.
2022
TMS–EEG; coil direction; electroencephalography; motor evoked potentials; presupplementary motor area; transcranial magnetic stimulation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/350261
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