Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based immunotherapy has significantly improved the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, a significant percentage of patients do not benefit from this approach, and predictive biomarkers are needed. Increasing evidence demonstrates that cachexia, a complex syndrome driven by cancer-related chronic inflammation often encountered in patients with NSCLC, may impair the immune response and ICI efficacy. Herein, we carried out a prospective study aimed at evaluating the prognostic and predictive role of cachexia with the related changes in nutritional, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters (assessed by the multidimensional miniCASCO tool) on the survival and clinical response (i.e., disease control rate) to ICI-based immunotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 74 consecutive patients. Upon multivariate regression analysis, we found a negative association between IL-6 levels (odds ratio (OR) = 0.9036; 95%CI = 0.8408–0.9711; p = 0.0025) and the miniCASCO score (OR = 0.9768; 95%CI = 0.9102–0.9999; p = 0.0310) with the clinical response. As for survival outcomes, multivariate COX regression analysis found that IL-6 levels and miniCASCO-based cachexia severity significantly affected PFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.0388; 95%CI = 1.0230–1.0548; p < 0.001 and HR = 1.2587; 95%CI = 1.0850–1.4602; p = 0.0024, respectively) and OS (HR = 1.0404; 95%CI = 1.0221–1.0589; p < 0.0001 and HR = 2.3834; 95%CI = 1.1504–4.9378; p = 0.0194, respectively). A comparison of the survival curves by Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significantly lower OS in patients with cachexia versus those without cachexia (p = 0.0323), as well as higher miniCASCO-based cachexia severity (p = 0.0428), an mGPS of 2 versus those with a lower mGPS (p = 0.0074), and higher IL-6 levels (>6 ng/mL) versus those with lower IL-6 levels (≤6 ng/mL) (p = 0.0120). In conclusion, our study supports the evidence that cachexia, with its related changes in inflammatory, body composition, and nutritional parameters, is a key prognostic and predictive factor for ICIs. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the potential benefit of counteracting cachexia to improve immunotherapy efficacy.

Effect of Cancer-Related Cachexia and Associated Changes in Nutritional Status, Inflammatory Status, and Muscle Mass on Immunotherapy Efficacy and Survival in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Madeddu, Clelia
;
Donisi, Clelia;Pretta, Andrea;Scartozzi, Mario;Maccio, Antonio
2023-01-01

Abstract

Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based immunotherapy has significantly improved the survival of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, a significant percentage of patients do not benefit from this approach, and predictive biomarkers are needed. Increasing evidence demonstrates that cachexia, a complex syndrome driven by cancer-related chronic inflammation often encountered in patients with NSCLC, may impair the immune response and ICI efficacy. Herein, we carried out a prospective study aimed at evaluating the prognostic and predictive role of cachexia with the related changes in nutritional, metabolic, and inflammatory parameters (assessed by the multidimensional miniCASCO tool) on the survival and clinical response (i.e., disease control rate) to ICI-based immunotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. We included 74 consecutive patients. Upon multivariate regression analysis, we found a negative association between IL-6 levels (odds ratio (OR) = 0.9036; 95%CI = 0.8408–0.9711; p = 0.0025) and the miniCASCO score (OR = 0.9768; 95%CI = 0.9102–0.9999; p = 0.0310) with the clinical response. As for survival outcomes, multivariate COX regression analysis found that IL-6 levels and miniCASCO-based cachexia severity significantly affected PFS (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.0388; 95%CI = 1.0230–1.0548; p < 0.001 and HR = 1.2587; 95%CI = 1.0850–1.4602; p = 0.0024, respectively) and OS (HR = 1.0404; 95%CI = 1.0221–1.0589; p < 0.0001 and HR = 2.3834; 95%CI = 1.1504–4.9378; p = 0.0194, respectively). A comparison of the survival curves by Kaplan–Meier analysis showed a significantly lower OS in patients with cachexia versus those without cachexia (p = 0.0323), as well as higher miniCASCO-based cachexia severity (p = 0.0428), an mGPS of 2 versus those with a lower mGPS (p = 0.0074), and higher IL-6 levels (>6 ng/mL) versus those with lower IL-6 levels (≤6 ng/mL) (p = 0.0120). In conclusion, our study supports the evidence that cachexia, with its related changes in inflammatory, body composition, and nutritional parameters, is a key prognostic and predictive factor for ICIs. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these findings and to explore the potential benefit of counteracting cachexia to improve immunotherapy efficacy.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
cancers-15-01076-with-cover.pdf

accesso aperto

Descrizione: full text
Tipologia: versione editoriale
Dimensione 1.16 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.16 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/355301
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 13
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 10
social impact