Functional paralysis (FP) or limb weakness is a common presentation of functional movement disorders (FMD), accounting for 18.1% of the clinical manifestations of FMD. The pathophysiology of FP is not known, but imaging studies have identified changes in structural and functional connectivity in multiple brain networks. It has been proposed that noninvasive brain stimulation techniques may be used to understand the pathophysiology of FP and may represent a possible therapeutic option. In this paper, we reviewed transcranial magnetic stimulation studies on functional paralysis, focusing on their pathophysiological and therapeutical implications. Overall, there is general agreement on the integrity of corticospinal pathways in FP, while conflicting results have been found about the net excitability of the primary motor cortex and its excitatory/inhibitory circuitry in resting conditions. The possible involvement of spinal cord circuits remains an under-investigated area. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation appears to have a potential role as a safe and viable option for the treatment of functional paralysis, but more studies are needed to investigate optimal stimulation parameters and clarify its role in the context of other therapeutical options.

Pathophysiology and Treatment of Functional Paralysis: Insight from Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Pisano, Giada
Primo
;
Ercoli, Tommaso
Secondo
;
Rocchi, Lorenzo
Ultimo
Supervision
2023-01-01

Abstract

Functional paralysis (FP) or limb weakness is a common presentation of functional movement disorders (FMD), accounting for 18.1% of the clinical manifestations of FMD. The pathophysiology of FP is not known, but imaging studies have identified changes in structural and functional connectivity in multiple brain networks. It has been proposed that noninvasive brain stimulation techniques may be used to understand the pathophysiology of FP and may represent a possible therapeutic option. In this paper, we reviewed transcranial magnetic stimulation studies on functional paralysis, focusing on their pathophysiological and therapeutical implications. Overall, there is general agreement on the integrity of corticospinal pathways in FP, while conflicting results have been found about the net excitability of the primary motor cortex and its excitatory/inhibitory circuitry in resting conditions. The possible involvement of spinal cord circuits remains an under-investigated area. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation appears to have a potential role as a safe and viable option for the treatment of functional paralysis, but more studies are needed to investigate optimal stimulation parameters and clarify its role in the context of other therapeutical options.
2023
Functional neurological disorders; Functional paralysis; Transcranial magnetic stimulation; Electroencephalography; Evoked potentials; Cortical inhibition; Cortical plasticity; Movement disorders
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/357659
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