Bismuth telluride halides (BiTeX) are Rashba-type crystals with several potential applications ranging from spintronics and nonlinear optics to energy. Their layered structures and low cleavage energies allow their production in a two-dimensional form, opening the path to miniaturized device concepts. The possibility to exfoliate bulk BiTeX crystals in the liquid represents a useful tool to formulate a large variety of functional inks for large-scale and cost-effective device manufacturing. Nevertheless, the exfoliation of BiTeI by means of mechanical and electrochemical exfoliation proved to be challenging. In this work, we report the first ultrasonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of BiTeI crystals. By screening solvents with different surface tension and Hildebrandt parameters, we maximize the exfoliation efficiency by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of the mixture solvent/BiTeI crystal. The most effective solvents for the BiTeI exfoliation have a surface tension close to 28 mN m(-1) and a Hildebrandt parameter between 19 and 25 MPa0.5. The morphological, structural, and chemical properties of the LPE-produced single-/few-layer BiTeI flakes (average thickness of & SIM;3 nm) are evaluated through microscopic and optical characterizations, confirming their crystallinity. Second-harmonic generation measurements confirm the non-centrosymmetric structure of both bulk and exfoliated materials, revealing a large nonlinear optical response of BiTeI flakes due to the presence of strong quantum confinement effects and the absence of typical phase-matching requirements encountered in bulk nonlinear crystals. We estimated a second-order nonlinearity at 0.8 eV of |chi((2))| & SIM; 1 nm V-1, which is 10 times larger than in bulk BiTeI crystals and is of the same order of magnitude as in other semiconducting monolayers (e.g., MoS2).

Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Bismuth Telluride Iodide (BiTeI): Structural and Optical Properties of Single-/Few-Layer Flakes

Curreli, Nicola;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Bismuth telluride halides (BiTeX) are Rashba-type crystals with several potential applications ranging from spintronics and nonlinear optics to energy. Their layered structures and low cleavage energies allow their production in a two-dimensional form, opening the path to miniaturized device concepts. The possibility to exfoliate bulk BiTeX crystals in the liquid represents a useful tool to formulate a large variety of functional inks for large-scale and cost-effective device manufacturing. Nevertheless, the exfoliation of BiTeI by means of mechanical and electrochemical exfoliation proved to be challenging. In this work, we report the first ultrasonication-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation (LPE) of BiTeI crystals. By screening solvents with different surface tension and Hildebrandt parameters, we maximize the exfoliation efficiency by minimizing the Gibbs free energy of the mixture solvent/BiTeI crystal. The most effective solvents for the BiTeI exfoliation have a surface tension close to 28 mN m(-1) and a Hildebrandt parameter between 19 and 25 MPa0.5. The morphological, structural, and chemical properties of the LPE-produced single-/few-layer BiTeI flakes (average thickness of & SIM;3 nm) are evaluated through microscopic and optical characterizations, confirming their crystallinity. Second-harmonic generation measurements confirm the non-centrosymmetric structure of both bulk and exfoliated materials, revealing a large nonlinear optical response of BiTeI flakes due to the presence of strong quantum confinement effects and the absence of typical phase-matching requirements encountered in bulk nonlinear crystals. We estimated a second-order nonlinearity at 0.8 eV of |chi((2))| & SIM; 1 nm V-1, which is 10 times larger than in bulk BiTeI crystals and is of the same order of magnitude as in other semiconducting monolayers (e.g., MoS2).
2022
Rashba effect; Liquid-phase exfoliation; Nonlinear optics; Second-harmonic generation; Two-dimensional materials
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/358705
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