The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, presents with an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms and signs. COVID-19 susceptibility and mortality show a significant sex imbalance, with men being more prone to infection and showing a higher rate of hospitalization and mortality than women. In particular, cardiovascular diseases (preexistent or arising upon infection) play a central role in COVID-19 outcomes, differently in men and women. This review will discuss the potential mechanisms accounting for sex/gender influence in vulnerability to COVID-19. Such variability can be ascribed to both sex-related biological factors and sex-related behavioural traits. Sex differences in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 involve the endothelial dysfunction, the innate immune system and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Furthermore, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is involved in disease pathogenesis in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 and it shows hormone-dependent actions. The incidence of myocardial injury during COVID-19 is sex-dependent, predominantly in association with a greater degree of inflammation and coagulation disorders among men. Its pathogenesis is not fully elucidated, but the main theories foresee a direct role for the ACE2 receptor, the hyperimmune response and the RAS imbalance, which may also lead to isolated presentation of COVID-19-mediated myopericarditis. Moreover, the latest evidence on cardiovascular diseases and their relationship with COVID-19 during pregnancy will be discussed. Finally, authors will analyse the prevalence of the long-covid syndrome between the two sexes and its impact on the quality of life and cardiovascular health.

Impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular health of women: a review by the Italian Society of Cardiology Working Group on 'gender cardiovascular diseases'

Cadeddu-Dessalvi, Christian;Deidda, Martino;Mercuro, Giuseppe;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), due to coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, presents with an extremely heterogeneous spectrum of symptoms and signs. COVID-19 susceptibility and mortality show a significant sex imbalance, with men being more prone to infection and showing a higher rate of hospitalization and mortality than women. In particular, cardiovascular diseases (preexistent or arising upon infection) play a central role in COVID-19 outcomes, differently in men and women. This review will discuss the potential mechanisms accounting for sex/gender influence in vulnerability to COVID-19. Such variability can be ascribed to both sex-related biological factors and sex-related behavioural traits. Sex differences in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 involve the endothelial dysfunction, the innate immune system and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Furthermore, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is involved in disease pathogenesis in cardiovascular disease and COVID-19 and it shows hormone-dependent actions. The incidence of myocardial injury during COVID-19 is sex-dependent, predominantly in association with a greater degree of inflammation and coagulation disorders among men. Its pathogenesis is not fully elucidated, but the main theories foresee a direct role for the ACE2 receptor, the hyperimmune response and the RAS imbalance, which may also lead to isolated presentation of COVID-19-mediated myopericarditis. Moreover, the latest evidence on cardiovascular diseases and their relationship with COVID-19 during pregnancy will be discussed. Finally, authors will analyse the prevalence of the long-covid syndrome between the two sexes and its impact on the quality of life and cardiovascular health.
2023
cardiovascular health
COVID-19
pandemic
women
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/369004
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