Context. Several radio sources have been detected in the high-mass star-forming region W75N(B), with the massive young stellar objects VLA 1 and VLA 2 shown to be of particular interest among them. These objects are thought to be at different evolutionary stages: VLA 1 is in the early stage of photoionization and driving a thermal radio jet, while VLA 2 is a thermal, collimated ionized wind surrounded by a dusty disk or envelope. In both sources, 22 GHz H2O masers have been detected in the past. Those around VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along the thermal radio jet, while those around VLA 2 have traced the evolution from a non-collimated to a collimated outflow over a period of ~20 yr. The magnetic field inferred from the H2O masers has shown an orientation rotation following the direction of the major-axis of the shell around VLA 2, whereas it is immutable around VLA 1. Aims. By monitoring the polarized emission of the 22 GHz H2O masers around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 over a period of six years, we aim to determine whether the H2O maser distributions show any variation over time and whether the magnetic field behaves accordingly. Methods. The European VLBI Network was used in full polarization and phase-reference mode in order to determine the absolute positions of the 22 GHz H2O masers with a beam size of ~1 mas and to determine the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field. We observed four epochs separated by two years from 2014 to 2020. Results. We detected polarized emission from the H2O masers around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 in all the epochs. By comparing the H2O masers detected in the four epochs, we find that the masers around VLA 1 are tracing a nondissociative shock originating from the expansion of the thermal radio jet, while the masers around VLA 2 are tracing an asymmetric expansion of the gas that is halted in the northeast where the gas likely encounters a very dense medium. We also found that the magnetic field inferred from the H2O masers in each epoch can be considered as a portion of a quasi-static magnetic field estimated in that location rather than in that time. This allowed us to study the morphology of the magnetic field around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 locally across a larger area by considering the vectors estimated in all the epochs as a whole. We find that the magnetic field in VLA 1 is located along the jet axis, bending toward the north and south at the northeasterly and southwesterly ends of the jet, respectively, reconnecting with the large-scale magnetic field. The magnetic field in VLA 2 is perpendicular to the expansion directions until it encounters the denser matter in the northeast, where the magnetic field is parallel to the expansion direction and agrees with the large-scale magnetic field. We also measured the magnetic field strength along the line of sight in three of the four epochs, with resulting values of -764mG< -676 mG and -355mG

Monitoring of the polarized H 2 O maser emission around the massive protostars W75N(B)-VLA 1 and W75N(B)-VLA 2

C. Goddi;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Context. Several radio sources have been detected in the high-mass star-forming region W75N(B), with the massive young stellar objects VLA 1 and VLA 2 shown to be of particular interest among them. These objects are thought to be at different evolutionary stages: VLA 1 is in the early stage of photoionization and driving a thermal radio jet, while VLA 2 is a thermal, collimated ionized wind surrounded by a dusty disk or envelope. In both sources, 22 GHz H2O masers have been detected in the past. Those around VLA 1 show a persistent linear distribution along the thermal radio jet, while those around VLA 2 have traced the evolution from a non-collimated to a collimated outflow over a period of ~20 yr. The magnetic field inferred from the H2O masers has shown an orientation rotation following the direction of the major-axis of the shell around VLA 2, whereas it is immutable around VLA 1. Aims. By monitoring the polarized emission of the 22 GHz H2O masers around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 over a period of six years, we aim to determine whether the H2O maser distributions show any variation over time and whether the magnetic field behaves accordingly. Methods. The European VLBI Network was used in full polarization and phase-reference mode in order to determine the absolute positions of the 22 GHz H2O masers with a beam size of ~1 mas and to determine the orientation and the strength of the magnetic field. We observed four epochs separated by two years from 2014 to 2020. Results. We detected polarized emission from the H2O masers around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 in all the epochs. By comparing the H2O masers detected in the four epochs, we find that the masers around VLA 1 are tracing a nondissociative shock originating from the expansion of the thermal radio jet, while the masers around VLA 2 are tracing an asymmetric expansion of the gas that is halted in the northeast where the gas likely encounters a very dense medium. We also found that the magnetic field inferred from the H2O masers in each epoch can be considered as a portion of a quasi-static magnetic field estimated in that location rather than in that time. This allowed us to study the morphology of the magnetic field around both VLA 1 and VLA 2 locally across a larger area by considering the vectors estimated in all the epochs as a whole. We find that the magnetic field in VLA 1 is located along the jet axis, bending toward the north and south at the northeasterly and southwesterly ends of the jet, respectively, reconnecting with the large-scale magnetic field. The magnetic field in VLA 2 is perpendicular to the expansion directions until it encounters the denser matter in the northeast, where the magnetic field is parallel to the expansion direction and agrees with the large-scale magnetic field. We also measured the magnetic field strength along the line of sight in three of the four epochs, with resulting values of -764mG< -676 mG and -355mG
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/370423
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