Loss of dopaminergic midbrain neurons perturbs L-serine and D-serine homeostasis in the post-mortem caudate putamen (CPu) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it is unclear whether the severity of dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration plays a role in deregulating serine enantiomers' metabolism. Here, through high -performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we measured the levels of these amino acids in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and MPTP-plus-probenecid (MPTPp)-treated mice to determine whether and how dopaminergic midbrain degeneration affects the levels of serine enantiomers in various basal ganglia subregions. In addition, in the same brain regions, we measured the levels of key neuro-active amino acids modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission, including L-glutamate, glycine, L-aspartate, D- aspartate, and their precursors L-glutamine, L-asparagine. In monkeys, MPTP treatment produced severe denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers (⁓75%) and increased the levels of serine enantiomers in the rostral putamen (rPut), but not in the subthalamic nucleus, and the lateral and medial portion of the globus pallidus. Moreover, this neurotoxin significantly reduced the protein expression of the astrocytic serine trans-porter ASCT1 and the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH in the rPut of monkeys. Conversely, concentrations of D-serine and L-serine, as well as ASCT1 and GAPDH expression were unaffected in the striatum of MPTPp-treated mice, which showed only mild dopaminergic degeneration (⁓30%). These findings unveil a link between the severity of dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration and striatal serine enantiomers concentration, ASCT1 and GAPDH expression. We hypothesize that the up-regulation of D-serine and L-serine levels occurs as a secondary response within a homeostatic loop to support the metabolic and neurotransmission demands imposed by the degener-ation of dopaminergic neurons.

Perturbation of serine enantiomers homeostasis in the striatum of MPTP-lesioned monkeys and mice reflects the extent of dopaminergic midbrain degeneration

Serra M.;Bassareo V.;Capasso M.;Parekh P.;Carta M.;Morelli M.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Loss of dopaminergic midbrain neurons perturbs L-serine and D-serine homeostasis in the post-mortem caudate putamen (CPu) of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. However, it is unclear whether the severity of dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration plays a role in deregulating serine enantiomers' metabolism. Here, through high -performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we measured the levels of these amino acids in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated monkeys and MPTP-plus-probenecid (MPTPp)-treated mice to determine whether and how dopaminergic midbrain degeneration affects the levels of serine enantiomers in various basal ganglia subregions. In addition, in the same brain regions, we measured the levels of key neuro-active amino acids modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission, including L-glutamate, glycine, L-aspartate, D- aspartate, and their precursors L-glutamine, L-asparagine. In monkeys, MPTP treatment produced severe denervation of nigrostriatal dopaminergic fibers (⁓75%) and increased the levels of serine enantiomers in the rostral putamen (rPut), but not in the subthalamic nucleus, and the lateral and medial portion of the globus pallidus. Moreover, this neurotoxin significantly reduced the protein expression of the astrocytic serine trans-porter ASCT1 and the glycolytic enzyme GAPDH in the rPut of monkeys. Conversely, concentrations of D-serine and L-serine, as well as ASCT1 and GAPDH expression were unaffected in the striatum of MPTPp-treated mice, which showed only mild dopaminergic degeneration (⁓30%). These findings unveil a link between the severity of dopaminergic nigrostriatal degeneration and striatal serine enantiomers concentration, ASCT1 and GAPDH expression. We hypothesize that the up-regulation of D-serine and L-serine levels occurs as a secondary response within a homeostatic loop to support the metabolic and neurotransmission demands imposed by the degener-ation of dopaminergic neurons.
2023
3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH); Parkinson's disease; Alanine serine cysteine transporter 1 (ASCT1); Caudate putamen; Excitatory amino acids; Ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR); Neuroinflammation; Serine racemase; Synaptic plasticity
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/382003
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