Cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinomas are lethal tumors worldwide and only a minority of patients are eligible for surgery at diagnosis. Moreover, patients are poorly responsive to current therapeutic strategies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and multimodality treatments. Recently, several advances have been made in precision medicine and these results are modifying the treatment paradigm for patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinoma. These histotypes exhibit a high rate of multiple fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations and numerous preclinical and clinical studies support FGFR as a highly attractive novel therapeutic target. Moreover, identifying specific genetic alterations may predict the tumor's response to conventional and novel FGFRtargeted drugs. Recent clinical studies showed promising data for FGFR-targeted therapy in reducing tumor volume and led to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of, e.g., pemigatinib, infigratinib, futibatinib, and erdafitinib. Moreover, FGFR inhibitors show promising results in the first-line setting of cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinomas. Pemigatinib (FIGHT-302) and futibatinib (FOENIX-CAA3) are being evaluated in phase III trials that compare these agents to current first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin in FGFR2-rearranged cholangiocarcinoma. However, complexity in targeting the FGFR signaling pathway is observed. Herein, we describe the characteristics of the FDA-approved and other investigational FGFRtargeted therapeutics, evaluate the most recent preclinical and clinical studies focusing on targeting FGFR genomic alterations in the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial cancer, and provide insight into factors involved in response and (acquired) resistance to FGFR inhibition.

Fibroblast growth factor receptors as targets for anticancer therapy in cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinomas

Pretta, Andrea;D'Agata, Alessandra Pia;Scartozzi, Mario
2023-01-01

Abstract

Cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinomas are lethal tumors worldwide and only a minority of patients are eligible for surgery at diagnosis. Moreover, patients are poorly responsive to current therapeutic strategies, including chemotherapy, radiotherapy, immunotherapy, and multimodality treatments. Recently, several advances have been made in precision medicine and these results are modifying the treatment paradigm for patients diagnosed with cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinoma. These histotypes exhibit a high rate of multiple fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genetic alterations and numerous preclinical and clinical studies support FGFR as a highly attractive novel therapeutic target. Moreover, identifying specific genetic alterations may predict the tumor's response to conventional and novel FGFRtargeted drugs. Recent clinical studies showed promising data for FGFR-targeted therapy in reducing tumor volume and led to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of, e.g., pemigatinib, infigratinib, futibatinib, and erdafitinib. Moreover, FGFR inhibitors show promising results in the first-line setting of cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial carcinomas. Pemigatinib (FIGHT-302) and futibatinib (FOENIX-CAA3) are being evaluated in phase III trials that compare these agents to current first-line gemcitabine and cisplatin in FGFR2-rearranged cholangiocarcinoma. However, complexity in targeting the FGFR signaling pathway is observed. Herein, we describe the characteristics of the FDA-approved and other investigational FGFRtargeted therapeutics, evaluate the most recent preclinical and clinical studies focusing on targeting FGFR genomic alterations in the treatment of cholangiocarcinomas and urothelial cancer, and provide insight into factors involved in response and (acquired) resistance to FGFR inhibition.
2023
Acquired resistance; Bladder cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma; FGFR genetic alterations; Fibroblast growth factor receptor inhibitors; Targeted therapy
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/383927
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