Background: While the outcomes of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) patients aged over 65 years have been extensively evaluated in real-life experiences, limited data exist for the very elderly population (i.e., aged ≥ 75 years), especially for next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In this retrospective study, we sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TKIs in this particular setting of patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a multicenter cohort of 123 newly diagnosed CP-CML very elderly patients. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 80 years (range: 75–96). In the first line, 86.1% of patients received imatinib, 7.1% dasatinib, 5.6% nilotinib, and 0.81% received bosutinib. A total of 31 patients (25.2%) switched to second-line therapy, nine patients to a third line, and one patient to a fourth line of therapy. Resistance to treatment was the primary reason for switching therapy in both the first (64.5%) and second lines (77.7%). At diagnosis, reduced doses were administered in 36.5% of patients, in 61.2% in the second line, and in all patients in subsequent lines of therapy. In the first-line setting, 71.9% of patients achieved an early molecular response (EMR, i.e., 3-month BCR::ABL1IS < 10%); at 6, 12, and 24 months, MR3 was reached by 35.7%, 55.7%, and 75.0% of patients, respectively, with 16.6%, 35.7%, and 51.7% achieving a deep molecular response (DMR) at the same time points. Treatment-free remission (TFR) was successfully attempted in 11 patients. During the follow-up period, adverse events (AEs) were observed in 78.8% of patients, including 22 cases of cardiovascular AEs. Toxicity grade ≥ 3 was more commonly observed in patients treated with standard doses of TKIs compared to reduced doses (p = 0.033). Overall, the median follow-up was 46.62 months (range: 1.8–206.2), and 43 patients died due to non-CML-related causes. Three patients died due to disease progression to advanced (n = 1) and blastic (n = 2) phases. The 5-year overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 71.9% (95% CI: 0.63–0.81), with no significant difference between the patients treated with standard doses of TKIs compared to those treated with reduced doses (p = 0.35). Conclusions: TKIs appear to be safe and effective even in very elderly CML patients, and dose optimization strategies yield satisfactory molecular responses for adequate disease control with an improved safety profile.

Safety and Efficacy of TKIs in very Elderly Patients (≥75 Years) with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

Costa, Alessandro
Primo
;
Mulas, Olga;Caocci, Giovanni
Penultimo
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Background: While the outcomes of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CP-CML) patients aged over 65 years have been extensively evaluated in real-life experiences, limited data exist for the very elderly population (i.e., aged ≥ 75 years), especially for next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). In this retrospective study, we sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TKIs in this particular setting of patients. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a multicenter cohort of 123 newly diagnosed CP-CML very elderly patients. Results: The median age at diagnosis was 80 years (range: 75–96). In the first line, 86.1% of patients received imatinib, 7.1% dasatinib, 5.6% nilotinib, and 0.81% received bosutinib. A total of 31 patients (25.2%) switched to second-line therapy, nine patients to a third line, and one patient to a fourth line of therapy. Resistance to treatment was the primary reason for switching therapy in both the first (64.5%) and second lines (77.7%). At diagnosis, reduced doses were administered in 36.5% of patients, in 61.2% in the second line, and in all patients in subsequent lines of therapy. In the first-line setting, 71.9% of patients achieved an early molecular response (EMR, i.e., 3-month BCR::ABL1IS < 10%); at 6, 12, and 24 months, MR3 was reached by 35.7%, 55.7%, and 75.0% of patients, respectively, with 16.6%, 35.7%, and 51.7% achieving a deep molecular response (DMR) at the same time points. Treatment-free remission (TFR) was successfully attempted in 11 patients. During the follow-up period, adverse events (AEs) were observed in 78.8% of patients, including 22 cases of cardiovascular AEs. Toxicity grade ≥ 3 was more commonly observed in patients treated with standard doses of TKIs compared to reduced doses (p = 0.033). Overall, the median follow-up was 46.62 months (range: 1.8–206.2), and 43 patients died due to non-CML-related causes. Three patients died due to disease progression to advanced (n = 1) and blastic (n = 2) phases. The 5-year overall survival (OS) for the entire cohort was 71.9% (95% CI: 0.63–0.81), with no significant difference between the patients treated with standard doses of TKIs compared to those treated with reduced doses (p = 0.35). Conclusions: TKIs appear to be safe and effective even in very elderly CML patients, and dose optimization strategies yield satisfactory molecular responses for adequate disease control with an improved safety profile.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/386823
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