Pain is an hallmark of sickle-cell-related acute clinical manifestations as part of acute vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). In SCD pain has different origins such as vascular or neuropathic pain, which requires multimodal analgesia. This is based on the administration of drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action, maximizing analgesia and minimizing their adverse events and the risk of drug-addition in patients experiencing acute-recurrent pain events as in SCD. Ketorolac is a potent non-narcotic analgesic, being relatively safe and effective during pain-management in children and adults. Up to now, there is a lack of safety information on continuous infusion ketorolac as used to control acute pain in patients with SCD, and the benefits/risks ratio needs to be investigated. Here, we report for the first time the safety profile of ketorolac in the special population of patients with SCD. We confirmed that ketorolac in combination with tramadol, an opioid like molecule, is effective in pain control of adult patients with SCD experiencing acute severe VOCs defined by pain visual analog scale. Our study shows that short term (72 h) continuous infusion of ketorolac plus tramadol is not associated with adverse events such as liver or kidney acute disfunction or abnormalities in coagulation parameters during patients' hospitalization and within 30 days after patients discharge. This is extremely important for patients with SCD, who should have access to multimodal therapy to control recurrent acute pain crisis in order to limit central sensitization a fearsome issue of undertreated recurrent acute pain and of chronic pain.

Safety and efficacy of ketorolac continuous infusion for multimodal analgesia of vaso-occlusive crisis in patients with sickle cell disease

Sardo, Salvatore
Methodology
;
Finco, Gabriele
Writing – Review & Editing
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Pain is an hallmark of sickle-cell-related acute clinical manifestations as part of acute vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC). In SCD pain has different origins such as vascular or neuropathic pain, which requires multimodal analgesia. This is based on the administration of drugs with different pharmacological mechanisms of action, maximizing analgesia and minimizing their adverse events and the risk of drug-addition in patients experiencing acute-recurrent pain events as in SCD. Ketorolac is a potent non-narcotic analgesic, being relatively safe and effective during pain-management in children and adults. Up to now, there is a lack of safety information on continuous infusion ketorolac as used to control acute pain in patients with SCD, and the benefits/risks ratio needs to be investigated. Here, we report for the first time the safety profile of ketorolac in the special population of patients with SCD. We confirmed that ketorolac in combination with tramadol, an opioid like molecule, is effective in pain control of adult patients with SCD experiencing acute severe VOCs defined by pain visual analog scale. Our study shows that short term (72 h) continuous infusion of ketorolac plus tramadol is not associated with adverse events such as liver or kidney acute disfunction or abnormalities in coagulation parameters during patients' hospitalization and within 30 days after patients discharge. This is extremely important for patients with SCD, who should have access to multimodal therapy to control recurrent acute pain crisis in order to limit central sensitization a fearsome issue of undertreated recurrent acute pain and of chronic pain.
2024
Ketorolac; Multi-modal analgesia; Pain; Sickle cell disease
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/388550
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