The combined influence of the catalyst acidity and porosity features on the transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was investigated over micro/mesoporous hierarchical Beta (Si/Al = 18 and 30), conventional microporous Beta (Si/Al = 23 and 43) and MCM-22 (Si/Al = 40) zeolites. All the catalysts were characterized as to their structure and texture by X-ray diffraction and N2 physisorption, respectively. Their acid features were assessed by adsorption microcalorimetry, using NH3 as probe molecule. Catalytic testing was carried out in batch at 453 K and 4 MPa. The nature of the organic material adsorbed/trapped in the catalyst during reaction ("coke") was determined by GC/MS after solvent extraction. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of 22-40 mol% were attained with a reaction time of 24 h over the conventional Beta and MCM-22 samples, whereas remarkably higher values (50-70 mol%) were observed over the hierarchical Beta zeolites. For both the hierarchical and conventional zeolites, the initial FAMEs yield was found to increase with the concentration of the acid sites able to adsorb ammonia with strength higher than ca. 100 kJ mol-1. In comparison with the conventional zeolites of similar acidity, the methyl esters yield over the hierarchical zeolites was twice to three times higher, as a consequence of the enhanced reactants diffusion in their secondary mesoporous system. The presence of free fatty acids in the reaction mixture and the nature of the coke revealed that several acid-catalyzed reactions and thermal degradation processes can occur simultaneously with transesterification. A general scheme for the different reaction pathways for the oil transformation was outlined.
|Titolo:||Adsorption microcalorimetry characterization of microporous and mesoporous zeolites for soybean oil transesterification|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|