Integrase (IN) is the enzyme of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which inserts the viral DNA (vDNA) into the host genome for successful viral replication leading to the infection. However, the chemical basis of HIV IN catalysis is speculative due to lack of complete co-crystal structure. Using the recently published prototype foamy virus IN crystal structure, we developed a model structure of HIV IN showing interaction of vDNA, the metal (Mg 2+) cofactor, and raltegravir (RLT) in the active site. Molecular docking and dynamics simulations studies showed that RLT uses it core central ring with diketo motif for Mg2+ chelation and bridge interaction with DDE motif. The triple arene interactions mediated by RLT with neighboring molecular motifs (Y143, cytosine, and adenine) is maintained during long simulation in wild type (WT). The fluorobenzyl and oxadiazole moieties of RLT forms aromatic stacking with cytosine base (head stacking) aromatic side chain of Y143 (tail stacking), respectively, while central ring further establishes aromatic stacking with distorted adenine base of vDNA (central stacking). The novel triple stacking systems were further explored to understand the molecular basis of drug resistance by molecular simulation. The in silico mutation (N155H, Q148H, and Q148H + G140S) and simulation studies elucidated the structural mechanism of resistance to RLT. The simulation studies provided the molecular basis for interdependency observed for the primary and secondary (Q148H and G140S) mutations and also explained the mechanism of viral fitness regain. Our study reveals that triple stacking and its consequence in terms of VdW energetic profile acts as a critical point to understand the drug-resistance. Here, we demonstrate that the root mean square deviation of centroid system (aromatic stacking) can be used as a major determinant of RLT binding toward the fold resistance. This is first kind of report, which discloses a strategy to explore the molecular level of drug resistance profile using aromatic interactions.
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|Titolo:||Aromatic interaction profile to understand the molecular basis of raltegravir resistance|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2012|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|