By measuring quantitatively the active efflux of cephalosporins by the RND (resistance-nodulation-division) family efflux pump AcrB in intact cells of Escherichia coli, we found that the simultaneous presence of another substrate, such as chloramphenicol, benzene, cyclohexane, or Arg beta-naphthilamide, significantly enhanced the extrusion of cephalosporins. The stimulation occurred also in a strain expressing the covalently linked trimer of AcrB, and thus cannot be ascribed to the enhanced assembly of the trimer from AcrB monomers. When Va1139 of AcrB was changed into Phe, the stimulation by benzene was found to occur at much lower concentration of the solvent. A plausible explanation of these observations is that the AcrB pump is constructed to pump out very rapidly the solvent or chloramphenicol molecules, and thus the efflux of cephalosporins, which presumably bind to a different subsite within the large binding pocket of AcrB, can become facilitated. Computer simulations of ligand binding to AcrB, both by docking and by molecular dynamics simulations, produced results supporting and extending this hypothesis. Benzene and the cephalosporin nitrocefin can bind simultaneously to the distal binding pocket of AcrB, both in the wild type and in the V139F variant. Interestingly, while the binding position and strength of benzene are almost unaffected by the presence of nitrocefin, this latter substrate is significantly displaced toward the exit gate in both wild type and mutant transporter in the presence of benzene. Additionally, the cephalosporin efflux may be enhanced by the binding of solvents (sometimes to the cephalosporin-free protomer), which could accelerate AcrB conformational changes necessary for substrate extrusion.
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|Titolo:||Some Ligands Enhance the Efflux of Other Ligands by the Escherichia coli Multidrug Pump AcrB|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2013|
|Tipologia:||1.1 Articolo in rivista|