In the last few years, significant advances in molecular biology have provided new therapeutic options for colorectal cancer (CRC). The development of new drugs that target the immune response to cancer cells seems very promising and has already been established for other tumor types. In particular, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors seems to be an encouraging immunotherapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an update of the current evidence related to this topic, though most immunotherapies are still in early-phase clinical trials for CRC. To understand the key role of immunotherapy in CRC, the authors discuss the delicate balance between immune-stimulating and immune-suppressive networks that occur in the tumor microenvironment. Expert opinion: Modulation of the immune system through checkpoint inhibition is an emerging approach in CRC therapy. Nevertheless, selection criteria that could enable the identification of patients who may benefit from these agents are necessary. Furthermore, potential prognostic and predictive immune biomarkers based on immune and molecular classifications have been proposed. As expected, additional studies are required to develop biomarkers, effective therapeutic strategies and novel combinations to overcome immune escape resistance and enhance effector response.

Immunotherapy for colorectal cancer: where are we heading?

SCARTOZZI, MARIO;PUZZONI, MARCO;
2017-01-01

Abstract

In the last few years, significant advances in molecular biology have provided new therapeutic options for colorectal cancer (CRC). The development of new drugs that target the immune response to cancer cells seems very promising and has already been established for other tumor types. In particular, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors seems to be an encouraging immunotherapeutic strategy. Areas covered: In this review, the authors provide an update of the current evidence related to this topic, though most immunotherapies are still in early-phase clinical trials for CRC. To understand the key role of immunotherapy in CRC, the authors discuss the delicate balance between immune-stimulating and immune-suppressive networks that occur in the tumor microenvironment. Expert opinion: Modulation of the immune system through checkpoint inhibition is an emerging approach in CRC therapy. Nevertheless, selection criteria that could enable the identification of patients who may benefit from these agents are necessary. Furthermore, potential prognostic and predictive immune biomarkers based on immune and molecular classifications have been proposed. As expected, additional studies are required to develop biomarkers, effective therapeutic strategies and novel combinations to overcome immune escape resistance and enhance effector response.
2017
Immunotherapy; MSI; PD-L1; atezolizumab; colorectal cancer; pembrolizumab
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
10.1080@14712598.2017.1315405.pdf

Solo gestori archivio

Tipologia: versione post-print
Dimensione 1.39 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
1.39 MB Adobe PDF   Visualizza/Apri   Richiedi una copia

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/214629
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 47
  • Scopus 81
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 77
social impact