The signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormone receptors (THR) are of fundamental importance for organogenesis, growth and differentiation, and significantly influence energy metabolism, lipid utilization and glucose homeostasis. Pharmacological control of these pathways would likely impact the treatment of several human diseases characterized by altered metabolism, growth or differentiation. Not surprisingly, biomedical research has been trying for the past decades to pharmacologically target the 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)/THR axis. In vitro and in vivo studies have provided evidence of the potential utility of the activation of the T3-dependent pathways in metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, supra-physiological doses of the THR agonist T3 cause severe thyrotoxicosis thus hampering its therapeutic use. However, the observation that most of the desired beneficial effects of T3 are mediated by the activation of the beta isoform of THR (THRβ) in metabolically active organs has led to the synthesis of a number of THRβ-selective thyromimetics. Among these drugs, GC-1, GC-24, KB141, KB2115, and MB07344 displayed a promising therapeutic strategy for liver diseases. However, although these drugs exhibited encouraging results when tested in the treatment of experimentally-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and HCC, significant adverse effects limited their use in clinical trials. More recently, evidence has been provided that some metabolites of thyroid hormones (TH), mono and diiodothyronines, could also play a role in the treatment of liver disease. These molecules, for a long time considered inactive byproducts of the metabolism of thyroid hormones, have now been proposed to be able to modulate and control lipid and cell energy metabolism. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding T3, its metabolites and analogs with reference to their possible clinical application in the treatment of liver disease. In particular, we will focus our attention on NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HCC. In addition, the possible therapeutic use of mono- and diiodothyronines in metabolic and/or neoplastic liver disease will be discussed.

Thyroid hormones, thyromimetics and their metabolites in the treatment of liver disease

Kowalik, Marta A.
Primo
;
Columbano, Amedeo
Secondo
;
Perra, Andrea
Ultimo
2018-01-01

Abstract

The signaling pathways activated by thyroid hormone receptors (THR) are of fundamental importance for organogenesis, growth and differentiation, and significantly influence energy metabolism, lipid utilization and glucose homeostasis. Pharmacological control of these pathways would likely impact the treatment of several human diseases characterized by altered metabolism, growth or differentiation. Not surprisingly, biomedical research has been trying for the past decades to pharmacologically target the 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3)/THR axis. In vitro and in vivo studies have provided evidence of the potential utility of the activation of the T3-dependent pathways in metabolic syndrome, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Unfortunately, supra-physiological doses of the THR agonist T3 cause severe thyrotoxicosis thus hampering its therapeutic use. However, the observation that most of the desired beneficial effects of T3 are mediated by the activation of the beta isoform of THR (THRβ) in metabolically active organs has led to the synthesis of a number of THRβ-selective thyromimetics. Among these drugs, GC-1, GC-24, KB141, KB2115, and MB07344 displayed a promising therapeutic strategy for liver diseases. However, although these drugs exhibited encouraging results when tested in the treatment of experimentally-induced obesity, dyslipidemia, and HCC, significant adverse effects limited their use in clinical trials. More recently, evidence has been provided that some metabolites of thyroid hormones (TH), mono and diiodothyronines, could also play a role in the treatment of liver disease. These molecules, for a long time considered inactive byproducts of the metabolism of thyroid hormones, have now been proposed to be able to modulate and control lipid and cell energy metabolism. In this review, we will summarize the current knowledge regarding T3, its metabolites and analogs with reference to their possible clinical application in the treatment of liver disease. In particular, we will focus our attention on NAFLD, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and HCC. In addition, the possible therapeutic use of mono- and diiodothyronines in metabolic and/or neoplastic liver disease will be discussed.
2018
Hepatocellular carcinoma; Liver cell proliferation; NASH; Regenerative medicine; T2; T3; Thyroid hormone receptor; Thyromimetics; Endocrinology, diabetes and metabolism
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/250486
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