Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Early diagnosis is relevant for its prevention and treatment. Since DNA methylation alterations are early events in tumourigenesis and can be detected in cell-free DNA, they represent promising biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis through non-invasive methods. In our previous work, we identified 74 early altered CpG islands (CGIs) associated with genes involved in cell cross-talking and cell signalling pathways. The aim of this work was to test whether methylation-based biomarkers could be detected in non-invasive matrices. Our results confirmed methylation alterations of GRIA4 and VIPR2 in CRC tissues, using MethyLight, as well as in stool samples, using a much more sensitive technique as droplet digital PCR. Furthermore, we analysed expression levels of selected genes whose promoter CGIs were hypermethylated in CRC, detecting downregulation at mRNA and protein levels in CRC tissue for GRIA4, VIPR2, SPOCK1 and SLC6A3. Most of these genes were already lowly expressed in colon normal tissues supporting the idea that cancer DNA methylation targets genes already barely expressed in the matched normal tissues. Our study suggests GRIA4 and VIPR2 as biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis using stool samples and confirms downregulation of genes hypermethylated in CRC.

Colorectal cancer early detection in stool samples tracing CPG islands methylation alterations affecting gene expression

Vega-Benedetti A. F.
Co-primo
;
Loi E.
Co-primo
;
Moi L.;Ziranu P.;Lai E.;Puzzoni M.;Cabras F.;Fortunato F.;Restivo A.;Zorcolo L.;Scartozzi M.;Zavattari P.
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer mortality. Early diagnosis is relevant for its prevention and treatment. Since DNA methylation alterations are early events in tumourigenesis and can be detected in cell-free DNA, they represent promising biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis through non-invasive methods. In our previous work, we identified 74 early altered CpG islands (CGIs) associated with genes involved in cell cross-talking and cell signalling pathways. The aim of this work was to test whether methylation-based biomarkers could be detected in non-invasive matrices. Our results confirmed methylation alterations of GRIA4 and VIPR2 in CRC tissues, using MethyLight, as well as in stool samples, using a much more sensitive technique as droplet digital PCR. Furthermore, we analysed expression levels of selected genes whose promoter CGIs were hypermethylated in CRC, detecting downregulation at mRNA and protein levels in CRC tissue for GRIA4, VIPR2, SPOCK1 and SLC6A3. Most of these genes were already lowly expressed in colon normal tissues supporting the idea that cancer DNA methylation targets genes already barely expressed in the matched normal tissues. Our study suggests GRIA4 and VIPR2 as biomarkers for early CRC diagnosis using stool samples and confirms downregulation of genes hypermethylated in CRC.
Colorectal cancer (CRC); CpG islands; cancer methylation alterations; CRC early diagnosis; biomarkers; GRIA4; VIPR2; SPOCK1; gene downregulation
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/294313
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