Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys–Dietz syndrome type 4 (LDS4) are two hereditary connective tissue disorders. MFS displays ectopia lentis as a distinguishing, characterising feature, and thoracic aortic ectasia, aneurysm, dissection, and systemic features as manifestations overlapping with LDS4. LDS4 is characterised by the presence of hypertelorism, cleft palate and/or bifid uvula, with possible ectasia or aneurysms in other arteries. The variable age of onset of clinical manifestations makes clinical diagnosis more difficult. In this study, we report the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome diagnosed at our centre at the age of 33 on the basis of typical clinical manifestations of this syndrome. At the age of 38, the appearance of ectasia of the left common iliac artery and tortuosity of the iliac arteries suggested the presence of LDS4. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis, followed by Array-CGH, allowed the detection of a novel chromosomal deletion including the entire TGFB2 gene, confirming not only the clinical suspicion of LDS4, but also the clinical phenotype associated with the haploinsufficiency mechanism, which is, in turn, associated with the deletion of the entire gene. The same mutation was detected in the two young sons. This emblematic case confirms that we must be very careful in the differential diagnosis of these two pathologies, especially before the age of 40, and that, in young subjects suspected to be affected by MFS in particular, we must verify the diagnosis, extending genetic analysis, when necessary, to the search for chromosomal alterations. Recently, ectopia lentis has been reported in a patient with LDS4, confirming the tight overlap between the two syndromes. An accurate revision of the clinical parameters both characterising and overlapping the two pathologies is highly desirable.

Differential diagnosis between Marfan syndrome and Loeys–Dietz syndrome type 4: A novel chromosomal deletion covering tgfb2

Giglio S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Marfan syndrome (MFS) and Loeys–Dietz syndrome type 4 (LDS4) are two hereditary connective tissue disorders. MFS displays ectopia lentis as a distinguishing, characterising feature, and thoracic aortic ectasia, aneurysm, dissection, and systemic features as manifestations overlapping with LDS4. LDS4 is characterised by the presence of hypertelorism, cleft palate and/or bifid uvula, with possible ectasia or aneurysms in other arteries. The variable age of onset of clinical manifestations makes clinical diagnosis more difficult. In this study, we report the case of a patient with Marfan syndrome diagnosed at our centre at the age of 33 on the basis of typical clinical manifestations of this syndrome. At the age of 38, the appearance of ectasia of the left common iliac artery and tortuosity of the iliac arteries suggested the presence of LDS4. Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) analysis, followed by Array-CGH, allowed the detection of a novel chromosomal deletion including the entire TGFB2 gene, confirming not only the clinical suspicion of LDS4, but also the clinical phenotype associated with the haploinsufficiency mechanism, which is, in turn, associated with the deletion of the entire gene. The same mutation was detected in the two young sons. This emblematic case confirms that we must be very careful in the differential diagnosis of these two pathologies, especially before the age of 40, and that, in young subjects suspected to be affected by MFS in particular, we must verify the diagnosis, extending genetic analysis, when necessary, to the search for chromosomal alterations. Recently, ectopia lentis has been reported in a patient with LDS4, confirming the tight overlap between the two syndromes. An accurate revision of the clinical parameters both characterising and overlapping the two pathologies is highly desirable.
2021
Chromosomal microdeletion
FBN1
Hereditary thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections
LDS type 4
Loeys–dietz syndrome
Marfan syndrome
SMAD3
TGFB2
TGFB3
TGFBR1
TGFBR2
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/320740
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