Context:Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a childhood-onset monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, including the distinctive R139X in Sardinia. Its rarity and great variability in manifestations/onset ages make early diagnosis difficult. To date, very few longitudinal studies of APS1 patients have been reported.Objective:The aim of this study was to describe the features and clinical course of APS1 and correlate them with AIRE and HLA class II genotypes in a large homogeneous cohort of Sardinian patients followed for up to 25 yr.Patients:Twenty-two pediatric APS1 patients were studied prospectively.Results:This Sardinian series (female/male ratio, 1.44; median current age, 30.7 yr; range, 1.8-46 yr) showed early disease onset (age range, 0.3-10 yr; median, 3.5 yr) and severe phenotype (on average, seven manifestations per patient). Besides the classic triad of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease, autoimmune hepatitis was a serious and surprisingly common/early/presenting feature (27%; two deaths), with a 5:1 female bias (median age, 6 yr; range, 2.5-11 yr). By contrast, type 1 diabetes was rare (one patient), and hypothyroidism was not seen. Additional disease components (several of them potentially life-threatening) appeared in adulthood. The major nonsense mutation, R139X, was found in 93% of the mutant AIRE alleles. High-titer interferon (IFN)-ω and IFN-α autoantibodies were detected in all patients tested, even preclinically at 4 months of age in one sibling. HLA alleles appear to influence the exact phenotype-the most interesting apparent association being between HLA-DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201, liver-kidney microsome autoantibodies (anti-CYP1A2), and autoimmune hepatitis.Conclusion:APS1 in Sardinia is characterized by severe phenotype, marked clinical heterogeneity, and relative genetic homogeneity. The single AIRE mutation, R139X, and the anti-IFN-ω and IFN-α autoantibodies are helpful for earlier diagnosis, especially when APS1 presents unusually. HLA genotypes can modify the phenotype.

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1: An extensive longitudinal study in Sardinian patients

ROSATELLI, MARIA CRISTINA;
2012-01-01

Abstract

Context:Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 (APS1) is a childhood-onset monogenic disorder caused by mutations in the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene, including the distinctive R139X in Sardinia. Its rarity and great variability in manifestations/onset ages make early diagnosis difficult. To date, very few longitudinal studies of APS1 patients have been reported.Objective:The aim of this study was to describe the features and clinical course of APS1 and correlate them with AIRE and HLA class II genotypes in a large homogeneous cohort of Sardinian patients followed for up to 25 yr.Patients:Twenty-two pediatric APS1 patients were studied prospectively.Results:This Sardinian series (female/male ratio, 1.44; median current age, 30.7 yr; range, 1.8-46 yr) showed early disease onset (age range, 0.3-10 yr; median, 3.5 yr) and severe phenotype (on average, seven manifestations per patient). Besides the classic triad of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, and Addison's disease, autoimmune hepatitis was a serious and surprisingly common/early/presenting feature (27%; two deaths), with a 5:1 female bias (median age, 6 yr; range, 2.5-11 yr). By contrast, type 1 diabetes was rare (one patient), and hypothyroidism was not seen. Additional disease components (several of them potentially life-threatening) appeared in adulthood. The major nonsense mutation, R139X, was found in 93% of the mutant AIRE alleles. High-titer interferon (IFN)-ω and IFN-α autoantibodies were detected in all patients tested, even preclinically at 4 months of age in one sibling. HLA alleles appear to influence the exact phenotype-the most interesting apparent association being between HLA-DRB1*0301-DQB1*0201, liver-kidney microsome autoantibodies (anti-CYP1A2), and autoimmune hepatitis.Conclusion:APS1 in Sardinia is characterized by severe phenotype, marked clinical heterogeneity, and relative genetic homogeneity. The single AIRE mutation, R139X, and the anti-IFN-ω and IFN-α autoantibodies are helpful for earlier diagnosis, especially when APS1 presents unusually. HLA genotypes can modify the phenotype.
2012
Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy; AIRE gene
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/32265
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