A highly efficient and robust multiple scales in silico protocol, consisting of atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD), coarse-grain (CG) MD, and constant-pH CG Monte Carlo (MC), has been developed and used to study the binding affinities of selected antigen-binding fragments of the monoclonal antibody (mAbs) CR3022 and several of its here optimized versions against 11 SARS-CoV-2 variants including the wild type. Totally 235,000 mAbs structures were initially generated using the RosettaAntibodyDesign software, resulting in top 10 scored CR3022-like-RBD complexes with critical mutations and compared to the native one, all having the potential to block virus-host cell interaction. Of these 10 finalists, two candidates were further identified in the CG simulations to be the best against all SARS-CoV-2 variants. Surprisingly, all 10 candidates and the native CR3022 exhibited a higher affinity for the Omicron variant despite its highest number of mutations. The multiscale protocol gives us a powerful rational tool to design efficient mAbs. The electrostatic interactions play a crucial role and appear to be controlling the affinity and complex building. Studied mAbs carrying a more negative total net charge show a higher affinity. Structural determinants could be identified in atomistic simulations and their roles are discussed in detail to further hint at a strategy for designing the best RBD binder. Although the SARS-CoV-2 was specifically targeted in this work, our approach is generally suitable for many diseases and viral and bacterial pathogens, leukemia, cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid, arthritis, lupus, and more.

Towards an optimal monoclonal antibody with higher binding affinity to the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins from different variants

Mocci, Francesca
Secondo
;
Laaksonen, Aatto;
2023-01-01

Abstract

A highly efficient and robust multiple scales in silico protocol, consisting of atomistic Molecular Dynamics (MD), coarse-grain (CG) MD, and constant-pH CG Monte Carlo (MC), has been developed and used to study the binding affinities of selected antigen-binding fragments of the monoclonal antibody (mAbs) CR3022 and several of its here optimized versions against 11 SARS-CoV-2 variants including the wild type. Totally 235,000 mAbs structures were initially generated using the RosettaAntibodyDesign software, resulting in top 10 scored CR3022-like-RBD complexes with critical mutations and compared to the native one, all having the potential to block virus-host cell interaction. Of these 10 finalists, two candidates were further identified in the CG simulations to be the best against all SARS-CoV-2 variants. Surprisingly, all 10 candidates and the native CR3022 exhibited a higher affinity for the Omicron variant despite its highest number of mutations. The multiscale protocol gives us a powerful rational tool to design efficient mAbs. The electrostatic interactions play a crucial role and appear to be controlling the affinity and complex building. Studied mAbs carrying a more negative total net charge show a higher affinity. Structural determinants could be identified in atomistic simulations and their roles are discussed in detail to further hint at a strategy for designing the best RBD binder. Although the SARS-CoV-2 was specifically targeted in this work, our approach is generally suitable for many diseases and viral and bacterial pathogens, leukemia, cancer, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid, arthritis, lupus, and more.
2023
COVID-19; Molecular dynamics; Coarse-grain simulation; Constant-pH Monte Carlo; Multiscale protocol; Electrostatic interactions
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/331661
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