Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the typical inflammation-induced neoplasia. It often prospers where a chronic liver disease persists, thus leading a strong rationale for immune therapy. Several immune-based treatments, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), cytokines, adoptive cell transfer, and vaccines, have been tested in the treatment of HCC. In this review, we summarize the role of the ICI in HCC patients in various sets of treatment. As for advanced HCC, the anti-Programmed cell Death protein 1 (PD1) antibodies and the anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies have been examined in patients with enthusiastic results in phase I-II-III studies. Overall, this led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and nivolumab + ipilimumab in the second-line setting. The anti- Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PDL-1) antibodies have also been evaluated. Thanks to the results obtained from phase III IMbrave study, atezolizumab + bevacizumab is now the standard of care in the first-line advanced setting of HCC. As for localized HCC, the putative immunological effect of locoregional therapies led to evaluate the combination strategy with ICI. This way, chemoembolization, ablation with radiofrequency, and radioembolization combined with ICI are currently under study. Likewise, the study of adjuvant immunotherapy following surgical resection is underway. In addition, the different ICI has been studied in combination with other ICI as well as with multikinase inhibitors and anti-angiogenesis monoclonal antibody. The evidence available suggests that combining systemic therapies and locoregional treatments with ICI may represent an effective strategy in this context.

Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Treatment of HCC

Donisi C.;Lai E.;Mariani S.;Saba G.;Dubois M.;Persano M.;Migliari M.;Pretta A.;Scartozzi M.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the typical inflammation-induced neoplasia. It often prospers where a chronic liver disease persists, thus leading a strong rationale for immune therapy. Several immune-based treatments, including immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI), cytokines, adoptive cell transfer, and vaccines, have been tested in the treatment of HCC. In this review, we summarize the role of the ICI in HCC patients in various sets of treatment. As for advanced HCC, the anti-Programmed cell Death protein 1 (PD1) antibodies and the anti-Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies have been examined in patients with enthusiastic results in phase I-II-III studies. Overall, this led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to approve pembrolizumab, nivolumab, and nivolumab + ipilimumab in the second-line setting. The anti- Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PDL-1) antibodies have also been evaluated. Thanks to the results obtained from phase III IMbrave study, atezolizumab + bevacizumab is now the standard of care in the first-line advanced setting of HCC. As for localized HCC, the putative immunological effect of locoregional therapies led to evaluate the combination strategy with ICI. This way, chemoembolization, ablation with radiofrequency, and radioembolization combined with ICI are currently under study. Likewise, the study of adjuvant immunotherapy following surgical resection is underway. In addition, the different ICI has been studied in combination with other ICI as well as with multikinase inhibitors and anti-angiogenesis monoclonal antibody. The evidence available suggests that combining systemic therapies and locoregional treatments with ICI may represent an effective strategy in this context.
2021
Atezolizumab; Hepatocellular carcinoma; Immune checkpoint inhibitors; Nivolumab; Pembrolizumab
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/335847
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