In this study a combined analysis of osmotic injury and cytotoxic effect useful for the optimization of the cryopreservation process of a cell suspension is carried out. The case of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) from Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) in contact with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) acting as Cryo-Protectant Agent (CPA) is investigated from the experimental as well as the theoretical perspective. The experimental runs are conducted by suspending the cells in hypertonic solutions of DMSO at varying osmolality, system temperature, and contact times; then, at room temperature, cells are pelleted by centrifugation and suspended back to isotonic conditions. Eventually, cell count and viability are measured by means of a Coulter counter and flow-cytometer, respectively. Overall, a decrease in cell count and viability results when DMSO concentration, temperature, and contact time increase. A novel mathematical model is developed and proposed to interpret measured data by dividing the cell population between viable and nonviable cells. The decrease of cell count is ascribed exclusively to the osmotic injury caused by expansion lysis: excessive swelling causes the burst of both viable as well as nonviable cells. On the other hand, the reduction of cell viability is ascribed only to cytotoxicity which gradually transforms viable cells into nonviable ones. A chemical reaction engineering approach is adopted to describe the dynamics of both phenomena: by following the kinetics of two chemical reactions during cell osmosis inside a closed system it is shown that the simultaneous reduction of cell count and viability may be successfully interpreted. The use of the Surface Area Regulation (SAR) model recently proposed by the authors allows one to avoid the setting in advance of fixed cell Osmotic Tolerance Limits (OTLs), as traditionally done in cryopreservation literature to circumvent the mathematical simulation of osmotic injury. Comparisons between experimental data and theoretical simulations are provided: first, a nonlinear regression analysis is performed to evaluate unknown model parameters through a best-fitting procedure carried out in a sequential fashion; then, the proposed model is validated by full predictions of system behavior measured at operating conditions different from those used during the best-fit procedure.

hMSCs in contact with DMSO for cryopreservation: experiments and modeling of osmotic injury and cytotoxic effect

Traversari G.;Delogu F.;Cincotti A.
2022

Abstract

In this study a combined analysis of osmotic injury and cytotoxic effect useful for the optimization of the cryopreservation process of a cell suspension is carried out. The case of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) from Umbilical Cord Blood (UCB) in contact with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) acting as Cryo-Protectant Agent (CPA) is investigated from the experimental as well as the theoretical perspective. The experimental runs are conducted by suspending the cells in hypertonic solutions of DMSO at varying osmolality, system temperature, and contact times; then, at room temperature, cells are pelleted by centrifugation and suspended back to isotonic conditions. Eventually, cell count and viability are measured by means of a Coulter counter and flow-cytometer, respectively. Overall, a decrease in cell count and viability results when DMSO concentration, temperature, and contact time increase. A novel mathematical model is developed and proposed to interpret measured data by dividing the cell population between viable and nonviable cells. The decrease of cell count is ascribed exclusively to the osmotic injury caused by expansion lysis: excessive swelling causes the burst of both viable as well as nonviable cells. On the other hand, the reduction of cell viability is ascribed only to cytotoxicity which gradually transforms viable cells into nonviable ones. A chemical reaction engineering approach is adopted to describe the dynamics of both phenomena: by following the kinetics of two chemical reactions during cell osmosis inside a closed system it is shown that the simultaneous reduction of cell count and viability may be successfully interpreted. The use of the Surface Area Regulation (SAR) model recently proposed by the authors allows one to avoid the setting in advance of fixed cell Osmotic Tolerance Limits (OTLs), as traditionally done in cryopreservation literature to circumvent the mathematical simulation of osmotic injury. Comparisons between experimental data and theoretical simulations are provided: first, a nonlinear regression analysis is performed to evaluate unknown model parameters through a best-fitting procedure carried out in a sequential fashion; then, the proposed model is validated by full predictions of system behavior measured at operating conditions different from those used during the best-fit procedure.
cryopreservation; cytotoxicity; DMSO; experiment; modeling; osmotic injury
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/343718
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