The design of multi-target drugs acting simultaneously on multiple signaling pathways is a growing field in medicinal chemistry, especially for the treatment of complex diseases, such as cancer. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an established anticancer drug target involved in tumor cells transformation. Being an epigenetic enzyme at the interplay of many biological processes, HDAC6 has become an attractive target for polypharmacology studies aimed at improving the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. For example, the molecular chaperone Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a substrate of HDAC6 deacetylation, and several lines of evidence demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of HDAC6 and Hsp90 promotes synergistic antitumor effects on different cancer cell lines, highlighting the potential benefits of developing a single molecule endowed with multi-target activity. This review will summarize the complex interplay between HDAC6 and Hsp90, providing also useful hints for multi-target drug design and discovery approaches in this field. To this end, crystallographic structures of HDAC6 and Hsp90 complexes will be extensively reviewed in light of discussing binding pockets features and pharmacophore requirements and providing useful guidelines for the design of dual inhibitors. The few examples of multi-target inhibitors obtained so far, mostly based on chimeric approaches, will be summarized and put into context. Finally, the main features of HDAC6 and Hsp90 inhibitors will be compared, and ligand- and structure-based strategies potentially useful for the development of small molecular weight dual inhibitors will be proposed and discussed.

Dual Targeting Strategies on Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90)

Moi, Davide;
2022-01-01

Abstract

The design of multi-target drugs acting simultaneously on multiple signaling pathways is a growing field in medicinal chemistry, especially for the treatment of complex diseases, such as cancer. Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) is an established anticancer drug target involved in tumor cells transformation. Being an epigenetic enzyme at the interplay of many biological processes, HDAC6 has become an attractive target for polypharmacology studies aimed at improving the therapeutic efficacy of anticancer drugs. For example, the molecular chaperone Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a substrate of HDAC6 deacetylation, and several lines of evidence demonstrate that simultaneous inhibition of HDAC6 and Hsp90 promotes synergistic antitumor effects on different cancer cell lines, highlighting the potential benefits of developing a single molecule endowed with multi-target activity. This review will summarize the complex interplay between HDAC6 and Hsp90, providing also useful hints for multi-target drug design and discovery approaches in this field. To this end, crystallographic structures of HDAC6 and Hsp90 complexes will be extensively reviewed in light of discussing binding pockets features and pharmacophore requirements and providing useful guidelines for the design of dual inhibitors. The few examples of multi-target inhibitors obtained so far, mostly based on chimeric approaches, will be summarized and put into context. Finally, the main features of HDAC6 and Hsp90 inhibitors will be compared, and ligand- and structure-based strategies potentially useful for the development of small molecular weight dual inhibitors will be proposed and discussed.
2022
HDAC6; Hsp90; Cancer; Dual inhibitors; Multi-target activity; Polypharmacology; HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins; Histone Deacetylase 6; Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; Humans; Signal Transduction; Antineoplastic Agents; Neoplasms
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/345544
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