In order to understand the distribution of fluorine in surface environments, also linked to fluoride deposits, this paper discusses the role of rift systems in fluorine enrichment of surface waters, with two examples: the Sardinia Island and the East African Rift. The main goal of this study is aimed to highlighting the areas that could potentially host fluorine in the surface waters in order to make it easier the lecture also for people to search and read not experts in the field, such as the biomedical field. Furthermore, potentialities and limitations of the currently available defluoridation techniques were examined, in order to identify the best intervention technology. From a careful review of the literature, to the addition of the extensive field observations in Sardinia and Ethiopia carried by the authors in the previous decades, we highlight the origin, processes and evolution of F-migration in Rift systems. The given examples of Sardinia and Ethiopia show that the origin and consequent behaviour of fluorine is strictly controlled by the rift systems. In this framework, the availability of fluorine for surface waters depends on two possible types of sources: a direct supply and an indirect supply. Directly from spring waters and ground waters fed by hydrothermal systems related to rifting, and indirectly from the leaching of products of rift-related activities, such as fluorite-bearing deposits, sedimentary or meta-sedimentary rift-related sequences, and volcanic or metavolcanic complexes emplaced along rift structures. The whole geological history of a given area must be taken into account in interpreting its present fluorine geochemistry. In conclusion, we underline the aspects of a possible control of these areas where fluoride exposure might lead to a long-term harm to local communities and we point out the nowadays best remediation-technologies, discussing their pro and cons in their applicability to different scales and social-contexts.

The fluorine in surface waters: origin, weight on human health, and defluoridation techniques

Serra, Matteo
Primo
;
Fanari, Fabio;Desogus, Francesco;Valera, Paolo
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

In order to understand the distribution of fluorine in surface environments, also linked to fluoride deposits, this paper discusses the role of rift systems in fluorine enrichment of surface waters, with two examples: the Sardinia Island and the East African Rift. The main goal of this study is aimed to highlighting the areas that could potentially host fluorine in the surface waters in order to make it easier the lecture also for people to search and read not experts in the field, such as the biomedical field. Furthermore, potentialities and limitations of the currently available defluoridation techniques were examined, in order to identify the best intervention technology. From a careful review of the literature, to the addition of the extensive field observations in Sardinia and Ethiopia carried by the authors in the previous decades, we highlight the origin, processes and evolution of F-migration in Rift systems. The given examples of Sardinia and Ethiopia show that the origin and consequent behaviour of fluorine is strictly controlled by the rift systems. In this framework, the availability of fluorine for surface waters depends on two possible types of sources: a direct supply and an indirect supply. Directly from spring waters and ground waters fed by hydrothermal systems related to rifting, and indirectly from the leaching of products of rift-related activities, such as fluorite-bearing deposits, sedimentary or meta-sedimentary rift-related sequences, and volcanic or metavolcanic complexes emplaced along rift structures. The whole geological history of a given area must be taken into account in interpreting its present fluorine geochemistry. In conclusion, we underline the aspects of a possible control of these areas where fluoride exposure might lead to a long-term harm to local communities and we point out the nowadays best remediation-technologies, discussing their pro and cons in their applicability to different scales and social-contexts.
fluorine; surface waters; hydrothermal deposits; Sardinia; East African Rift; fluorosis; human health
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/345994
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