Introduction. Olfactory and cognitive disorders represent important non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No clear evidence was reported about association of specific cognitive domains and olfactory impairment. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction and specific cognitive domains in PD patients compared to controls. Methods. 178 PD patients and 98 controls were enrolled and evaluated for odor threshold (OT), discrimination (OD), identification (OI), and TDI score using the Sniffin’ Sticks test. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale with six sub-scores: Ori-entation (OIS), Attention (AIS), Language (LIS), Visuospatial (VIS), Memory (MIS), and Executive index scores (EIS). Results. Statistically significant correlations were observed between OT versus, LIS, and between TDI score versus EIS. Multivariate linear regression analysis, including age and sex which are well-known predictors of olfactory dysfunction, showed that, among specific cog-nitive domains, only LIS was significant predictor for OT, VIS was a significant predictor for OD, while both EIS and AIS were significant predictors for OI, and finally only EIS was significant predictor for TDI score. Conclusions. Olfactory disorders in PD patients appear commonly related to dysfunction of specific cognitive domains, with strict association between global olfactory impairment and executive function deficits.

Olfactory Impairment Correlates with Executive Functions Disorders and Other Specific Cognitive Dysfunctions in Parkinson’s Disease

Paolo Solla;Carla Masala
;
Tommaso Ercoli;Ilenia Pinna;Francesco Loy;Giovanni Defazio
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction. Olfactory and cognitive disorders represent important non-motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD). No clear evidence was reported about association of specific cognitive domains and olfactory impairment. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between olfactory dysfunction and specific cognitive domains in PD patients compared to controls. Methods. 178 PD patients and 98 controls were enrolled and evaluated for odor threshold (OT), discrimination (OD), identification (OI), and TDI score using the Sniffin’ Sticks test. Cognitive function was evaluated using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale with six sub-scores: Ori-entation (OIS), Attention (AIS), Language (LIS), Visuospatial (VIS), Memory (MIS), and Executive index scores (EIS). Results. Statistically significant correlations were observed between OT versus, LIS, and between TDI score versus EIS. Multivariate linear regression analysis, including age and sex which are well-known predictors of olfactory dysfunction, showed that, among specific cog-nitive domains, only LIS was significant predictor for OT, VIS was a significant predictor for OD, while both EIS and AIS were significant predictors for OI, and finally only EIS was significant predictor for TDI score. Conclusions. Olfactory disorders in PD patients appear commonly related to dysfunction of specific cognitive domains, with strict association between global olfactory impairment and executive function deficits.
2023
Parkinson’s disease; Olfactory dysfunction; Cognitive impairment; Executive function
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/352374
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