Here the authors characterize structural variations (SVs) in a cohort of individuals with complex genomic rearrangements, identifying breakpoints by employing short- and long-read genome sequencing and investigate their impact on gene expression and the three-dimensional chromatin architecture. They find breakpoints are enriched in inactive regions and can result in chromatin domain fusions.Structural variants are a common cause of disease and contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability, but their detection and interpretation remain a challenge. Here, we investigate 11 individuals with complex genomic rearrangements including germline chromothripsis by combining short- and long-read genome sequencing (GS) with Hi-C. Large-scale genomic rearrangements are identified in Hi-C interaction maps, allowing for an independent assessment of breakpoint calls derived from the GS methods, resulting in >300 genomic junctions. Based on a comprehensive breakpoint detection and Hi-C, we achieve a reconstruction of whole rearranged chromosomes. Integrating information on the three-dimensional organization of chromatin, we observe that breakpoints occur more frequently than expected in lamina-associated domains (LADs) and that a majority reshuffle topologically associating domains (TADs). By applying phased RNA-seq, we observe an enrichment of genes showing allelic imbalanced expression (AIG) within 100 kb around the breakpoints. Interestingly, the AIGs hit by a breakpoint (19/22) display both up- and downregulation, thereby suggesting different mechanisms at play, such as gene disruption and rearrangements of regulatory information. However, the majority of interpretable genes located 200 kb around a breakpoint do not show significant expression changes. Thus, there is an overall robustness in the genome towards large-scale chromosome rearrangements.

Integration of Hi-C with short and long-read genome sequencing reveals the structure of germline rearranged genomes

Giglio S.
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Here the authors characterize structural variations (SVs) in a cohort of individuals with complex genomic rearrangements, identifying breakpoints by employing short- and long-read genome sequencing and investigate their impact on gene expression and the three-dimensional chromatin architecture. They find breakpoints are enriched in inactive regions and can result in chromatin domain fusions.Structural variants are a common cause of disease and contribute to a large extent to inter-individual variability, but their detection and interpretation remain a challenge. Here, we investigate 11 individuals with complex genomic rearrangements including germline chromothripsis by combining short- and long-read genome sequencing (GS) with Hi-C. Large-scale genomic rearrangements are identified in Hi-C interaction maps, allowing for an independent assessment of breakpoint calls derived from the GS methods, resulting in >300 genomic junctions. Based on a comprehensive breakpoint detection and Hi-C, we achieve a reconstruction of whole rearranged chromosomes. Integrating information on the three-dimensional organization of chromatin, we observe that breakpoints occur more frequently than expected in lamina-associated domains (LADs) and that a majority reshuffle topologically associating domains (TADs). By applying phased RNA-seq, we observe an enrichment of genes showing allelic imbalanced expression (AIG) within 100 kb around the breakpoints. Interestingly, the AIGs hit by a breakpoint (19/22) display both up- and downregulation, thereby suggesting different mechanisms at play, such as gene disruption and rearrangements of regulatory information. However, the majority of interpretable genes located 200 kb around a breakpoint do not show significant expression changes. Thus, there is an overall robustness in the genome towards large-scale chromosome rearrangements.
2022
Chromothripsis and chromoanasynthesis; Structural variants; Complex genomic rearrangements; Hi-C interaction map; Topologically associating domains (TADs)
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11584/354759
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